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Constitution Of The Roman Republic
The CONSTITUTION OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC was a set of unwritten norms and customs , which together with various written laws , guided the manner by which the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
was governed. The constitution emerged out of that of the Roman kingdom
Roman kingdom
, evolved over the almost five hundred years of the Republic, and was transformed into the constitution of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Empire Of Trebizond
The EMPIRE OF TREBIZOND or the TRAPEZUNTINE EMPIRE was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia
Anatolia
and the southern Crimea
Crimea
. Originally formed during a revolt against the usurpation of the imperial throne by the grandsons of Emperor
Emperor
Andronikos I Komnenos , Trebizond (current Trabzon
Trabzon
, Turkey, with which the name of the empire is a cognate) became a Byzantine Greek successor state established after the fall of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire in the Fourth Crusade , along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus . The Emperors of Trebizond pressed their claim on the Imperial throne for decades after the Nicaean reconquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1261
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Magister Militum
MAGISTER MILITUM ( Latin
Latin
for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire , dating from the reign of Constantine the Great . Used alone, the term referred to the senior military officer (equivalent to a war theatre commander, the emperor remaining the supreme commander) of the Empire. In Greek sources, the term is translated either as strategos or as stratelates
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Pontifex Maximus
The PONTIFEX MAXIMUS ( Latin
Latin
, literally: "greatest pontiff " or "greatest bridge-builder") was the high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome
Rome
. This was the most important position in the ancient Roman religion , open only to patricians until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. A distinctly religious office under the early Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it gradually became politicized until, beginning with Augustus
Augustus
, it was subsumed into the Imperial office. Its last use with reference to the emperors is in inscriptions of Gratian (reigned 375–383) who, however, then decided to omit the words "pontifex maximus" from his title
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Augustus (honorific)
AUGUSTUS (plural AUGUSTI), /ɔːˈɡʌstəs/ ; Classical Latin: , Latin for "majestic," "the increaser," or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor . On his death, it became an official title of his successor, and was so used by Roman emperors thereafter. The feminine form AUGUSTA was used for Roman empresses and other females of the Imperial family. The masculine and feminine forms originated in the time of the Roman Republic , in connection with things considered divine or sacred in traditional Roman religion . Their use as titles for major and minor Roman deities of the Empire associated the Imperial system and Imperial family with traditional Roman virtues and the divine will, and may be considered a feature of the Roman Imperial cult
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Mos Maiorum
The MOS MAIORUM ("ancestral custom" or "way of the elders," plural mores , cf. English "mores "; maiorum is the genitive plural of "greater" or "elder") is the unwritten code from which the ancient Romans derived their social norms . It is the core concept of Roman traditionalism, distinguished from but in dynamic complement to written law . The mos maiorum was collectively the time-honoured principles, behavioural models, and social practices that affected private, political, and military life in ancient Rome. CONTENTS * 1 Family and society * 2 Tradition and evolution * 3 Values * 3.1 Fides * 3.2 Pietas * 3.3 Religio and cultus * 3.4 Disciplina * 3.5 Gravitas and constantia * 3.6 Virtus * 3.7 Dignitas and auctorias * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References FAMILY AND SOCIETYThe Roman family (the familia, better translated as "household" than "family") was hierarchical, as was Roman society
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Timeline Of Roman History
This is a TIMELINE OF ROMAN HISTORY, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
and Republic and the Roman and Byzantine Empires . To read about the background of these events, see Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
and History of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. Following tradition, this timeline marks the deposition of Romulus Augustulus and the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
as the end of Rome
Rome
in the west and east, respectively. See Third Rome for a discussion of claimants to the succession of Rome. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries
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Magister Equitum
The MAGISTER EQUITUM, in English MASTER OF THE HORSE or MASTER OF THE CAVALRY, was a Roman magistrate appointed as lieutenant to a dictator . His nominal function was to serve as commander of the Roman cavalry in time of war, but just as a dictator could be nominated to respond to other crises, so the magister equitum could operate independently of the cavalry; like the dictator, the appointment of a magister equitum served both military and political purposes. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Nature of the office * 3 History * 4 List of magistri equitum * 5 Notes * 6 References ORIGINIn the time of the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
, the king himself would lead the cavalry into battle, or else delegate this authority to his chief advisor, the Tribune
Tribune
of the Celeres , the cavalry unit that also served as the king's personal bodyguard
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Vicarius
VICARIUS is a Latin
Latin
word, meaning substitute or deputy. It is the root of the English word "vicar ". Originally, in ancient Rome, this office was equivalent to the later English "vice- " (as in "deputy"), used as part of the title of various officials. Each vicarius was assigned to a specific superior official, after whom his full title was generally completed by a genitive (e.g. vicarius praetoris). At a low level of society, the slave of a slave , possibly hired out to raise money to buy manumission , was a servus vicarius. Later, in the 290s, the Emperor Diocletian
Diocletian
carried out a series of administrative reforms, ushering in the period of the Dominate
Dominate
. These reforms also saw the number of Roman provinces increased, and the creation of a new administrative level, the diocese . The dioceses, initially twelve, grouped several provinces, each with its own governor
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Vigintisexviri
The VIGINTISEXVIRI (sing. vigintisexvir) was a college (collegium ) of minor magistrates (magistratus minores) in the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
; the name literally means "Twenty-Six Men"
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Lictor
A LICTOR (possibly from Latin
Latin
: ligare, "to bind") was a Roman civil servant who was a bodyguard to magistrates who held imperium . Lictors were used since the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
, and according to Roman historian Livy
Livy
, the custom may have originated earlier, in the Etruscan civilization . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Eligibility * 3 Tasks * 4 Lictor
Lictor
curiatus * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ORIGIN A fasces was the symbol of a Lictor
Lictor
According to Livy, lictors were introduced by Rome's first king, Romulus
Romulus
, who appointed 12 lictors to attend him. Livy
Livy
refers to two competing traditions for the reason that Romulus
Romulus
chose that number of lictors
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium
Sirmium

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Prefect
PREFECT (from the Latin
Latin
praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area. A prefect's office, department, or area of control is called a prefecture , but in various post- Roman empire
Roman empire
cases there is a prefect without a prefecture or vice versa. The words "prefect" and "prefecture" are also used, more or less conventionally, to render analogous words in other languages, especially Romance languages
Romance languages

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Officium (Ancient Rome)
OFFICIUM (plural officia) is a Latin
Latin
word with various meanings in Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
, including "service", "(sense of) duty", "courtesy", "ceremony" and the like. It also translates the Greek kathekon and was used in later Latin
Latin
to render more modern offices. However, this article is mainly concerned with the meaning of "an office" (the modern word office derives from it) or "bureau" in the sense of a dignitary's staff of administrative and other collaborators, each of whom was called an officialis (hence the modern official ). The Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
gives us uniquely detailed information, stemming from the very imperial chanceries, on the composition of the officia of many of the leading court, provincial, military and certain other officials of the two Roman empires c. AD 400
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Dominate
The DOMINATE or LATE ROMAN EMPIRE was the "despotic " later phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the " Principate
Principate
", in the ancient Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. It has traditionally been considered to begin with the commencement of the reign of Diocletian in AD 284, following the Third Century Crisis of AD 235–284, and to end in the west with the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476, while in the east its end is disputed, as either occurring at the close of the reign of Justinian I
Justinian I
(AD 565) or of Heraclius
Heraclius
(AD 641). In form, the Dominate
Dominate
is considered to have been more authoritarian, less collegiate and more bureaucratic than the Principate
Principate
from which it emerged
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King Of Rome
The KING OF ROME ( Latin
Latin
: Rex Romae) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
. According to legend , the first king of Rome
Rome
was Romulus
Romulus
, who founded the city in 753 BC upon the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
. Seven legendary kings are said to have ruled Rome
Rome
until 509 BC, when the last king was overthrown. These kings ruled for an average of 35 years. The kings after Romulus
Romulus
were not known to be dynasts and no reference is made to the hereditary principle until after the fifth king Tarquinius Priscus . Consequently, some have assumed that the Tarquins and their attempt to institute a hereditary monarchy over this conjectured earlier elective monarchy resulted in the formation of the republic
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