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Constitution Of The Roman Republic
The constitution of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
was a set of unwritten norms and customs, which together with various written laws,[1] guided the manner by which the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
was governed
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Vigintisexviri
The Vigintisexviri
Vigintisexviri
(sing. vigintisexvir) was a college (collegium) of minor magistrates (magistratus minores) in the Roman Republic; the name literally means "Twenty-Six Men"
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Tribuni Militum Consulari Potestate
The tribuni militum consulari potestate ("military tribunes with consular power"), in English commonly also Consular Tribunes, were tribunes elected with consular power during the so-called "Conflict of the Orders" in the Roman Republic, starting in 444 BC and then continuously from 408 BC to 394 BC and again from 391 BC to 367 BC.Contents1 Origin and dissolution of the office 2 Consular Tribunes by year 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesOrigin and dissolution of the office[edit] According to the histories of Livy
Livy
and Dionysius of Halicarnassus,[citation needed] the magistracy of the tribuni militum consulari potestate was create
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King Of Rome
The King of Rome
The King of Rome
(Latin: Rex Romae) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom.[1] According to legend, the first king of Rome
Rome
was Romulus, who founded the city in 753 BC upon the Palatine Hill. Seven legendary kings are said to have ruled Rome
Rome
until 509 BC, when the last king was overthrown. These kings ruled for an average of 35 years. The kings after Romulus
Romulus
were not known to be dynasts and no reference is made to the hereditary principle until after the fifth king Tarquinius Priscus
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Triumvirate
A triumvirate (Latin: triumvirātus) is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs (Latin: triumviri). The arrangement can be formal or informal. Though the three are notionally equal, this is rarely the case in reality. The term can also be used to describe a state with three different military leaders who all claim to be the sole leader. In the context of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russia, the term troika (Russian for "group of three") is used for "triumvirate"
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Decemviri
The decemviri or decemvirs ( Latin
Latin
for "ten men") were any of several 10-man commissions established by the Roman Republic. The most important were those of the two Decemvirates, formally the "Decemvirs Writing the Laws with Consular Imperium" (Latin: Decemviri Legibus Scribundis Consulari Imperio) who reformed and codified Roman law during the Conflict of the Orders
Conflict of the Orders
between ancient Rome's patrician aristocracy and plebeian commoners
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Roman Emperor
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus
Augustus
or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title princeps (first citizen). Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps senatus, Consul
Consul
and Pontifex Maximus. The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate; an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both
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Legatus
A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military office in the Roman army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer. Initially used to delegate power, the term became formalized under Augustus
Augustus
as the officer in command of a legion. From the times of the Roman Republic, legates had received large shares of the army's booty at the end of a successful campaign, which made the position a lucrative one, so it could often attract even distinguished consuls (e.g., the consul Lucius Julius Caesar volunteered late in the Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
as a legate under his first cousin once removed, Gaius Julius Caesar).Contents1 Overview 2 Diplomatic legatus 3 See also 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] The men who filled the office of legate were drawn from among the senatorial class of Rome
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Dux
Dux
Dux
(/dʌks, dʊks/; plural: ducēs) is Latin
Latin
for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge, duce, etc.). During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank. In writing his commentaries on the Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
uses the term only for Celtic generals, with one exception for a Roman commander who held no official rank.[1]Contents1 Roman Empire1.1 Original usage 1.2 Change in usage 1.3 The office under the Dominate2 Later developments 3 Post-Roman uses3.1 Education4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksRoman Empire[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Officium (Ancient Rome)
Officium (plural officia) is a Latin
Latin
word with various meanings in Ancient Rome, including "service", "(sense of) duty", "courtesy", "ceremony" and the like. It also translates the Greek kathekon and was used in later Latin
Latin
to render more modern offices. However, this article is mainly concerned with the meaning of "an office" (the modern word office derives from it) or "bureau" in the sense of a dignitary's staff of administrative and other collaborators, each of whom was called an officialis (hence the modern official). The Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
gives us uniquely detailed information, stemming from the very imperial chanceries, on the composition of the officia of many of the leading court, provincial, military and certain other officials of the two Roman empires c. AD 400
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Prefect
Prefect
Prefect
(from the Latin
Latin
praefectus, substantive adjectival[1] form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area. A prefect's office, department, or area of control is called a prefecture, but in various post- Roman empire
Roman empire
cases there is a prefect without a prefecture or vice versa
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Vicarius
Vicarius
Vicarius
is a Latin
Latin
word, meaning substitute or deputy. It is the root of the English word "vicar". Originally, in ancient Rome, this office was equivalent to the later English "vice-" (as in "deputy"), used as part of the title of various officials. Each vicarius was assigned to a specific superior official, after whom his full title was generally completed by a genitive (e.g. vicarius praetoris). At a low level of society, the slave of a slave, possibly hired out to raise money to buy manumission, was a servus vicarius.[1] Later, in the 290s, the Emperor Diocletian
Diocletian
carried out a series of administrative reforms, ushering in the period of the Dominate. These reforms also saw the number of Roman provinces
Roman provinces
increased, and the creation of a new administrative level, the diocese
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Lictor
A lictor (possibly from Latin: ligare, "to bind") was a Roman civil servant who was a bodyguard to magistrates who held imperium. Lictors were used since the Roman Kingdom, and according to Roman historian Livy, the custom may have originated earlier, in the Etruscan civilization.Contents1 Origin 2 Eligibility 3 Tasks 4 Lictor
Lictor
curiatus 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOrigin[edit]A fasces was the symbol of a LictorAccording to Livy, lictors were introduced by Rome's first king, Romulus, who appointed 12 lictors to attend him. Livy
Livy
refers to two competing traditions for the reason that Romulus
Romulus
chose that number of lictors
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Roman Dictator
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty. All other magistrates were subordinate to his imperium, and the right of the plebeian tribunes to veto his actions or of the people to appeal from them was extremely limited. However, in order to prevent the dictatorship from threatening the state itself, severe limitations were placed upon its powers: a dictator could only act within his intended sphere of authority; and he was obliged to resign his office once his appointed task had been accomplished, or at the expiration of six months. Dictators were regularly appointed from the earliest period of the Republic down to the Second Punic War, but the magistracy then went into abeyance for over a century, until it was revived in a significantly modified form, first by Sulla, and then by Julius Caesar
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Magister Militum
Magister militum
Magister militum
( Latin
Latin
for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great.[dubious – discuss] Used alone, the term referred to the senior military officer (equivalent to a war theatre commander, the emperor remaining the supreme commander) of the Empire
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