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Constantine IV
Constantine IV (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Δ', translit. Kōnstantinos IV; Latin: Flavius Constantinus Augustus; c. 652 – 14 September 685), sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos (Πωγωνάτος), "the Bearded", out of confusion with his father, was Byzantine Emperor from 668 to 685
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Abdu'l-Rahman Ibn Abu Bakr
Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr (died 666) was the eldest son of Abu Bakr, the first caliph in Sunni Islam. His mother was Um Ruman bint Amir ibn Uwaymir ibn Zuhal ibn Dahman and he was the full brother of Aisha. He and three other children of Abu Bakr namely Abdullah, Aisha and Asma were born sometime between 595 AD to 600 AD. It is said that he had a good sense of humour. Unlike the rest of his family, including his father Abu Bakr and sister Aisha, he did not convert to Islam until the Treaty of Hudaybiyah in 628 AD. Four generations of the family of Abdul-Rahman had the distinction of being the companions (sahaba) of the Prophet Muhammad namely Abdul-Rahman, his father Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, his grandfather Uthman Abu Quhafa and his son Abu Atiq Muhammad
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Yazid I
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان‎; 647 – 11 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate (and the first one through inheritance)
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Romanization Of Greek
Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet. The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B (/b/) was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ, while the modern β sounds like the English letter V (/v/) instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes in Latin and then John in English, but in Greek itself has instead become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis, Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would have been in ancient Greek
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Latin Language
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language in Italy, and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire. Latin has contributed many words to the English language. In particular, Latin (and Ancient Greek) roots are used in English descriptions of theology, the sciences, medicine, and law. By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin
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Valentinus (usurper)
Valentinus (Greek: Οὐαλεντῖνος/Βαλεντῖνος) (died 644) was a Byzantine general and usurper.

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Caliph
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلَافَةkhilāfah) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈk-/; Arabic: خَلِيْفَةkhalīfah, About this soundpronunciation ), a person considered a political-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (Muslim community). Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258). In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517
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Armenia
Coordinates: 40°N 45°E / 40°N 45°E / 40; 45 Armenia (/ɑːrˈmniə/ (About this soundlisten); Armenian: Հայաստան, romanizedHayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]), officially the Republic of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, romanizedHayastani Hanrapetut'yun, IPA: [hɑjɑstɑˈni hɑnɾɑpɛtutʰˈjun]), is a landlocked country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia
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Chalcedon
Chalcedon (/kælˈsdən/ or /ˈkælsɪdɒn/; Greek: Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor. It was located almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Üsküdar) and it is now a district of the city of Istanbul named Kadıköy. The name Chalcedon is a variant of Calchedon, found on all the coins of the town as well as in manuscripts of Herodotus's Histories, Xenophon's Hellenica, Arrian's Anabasis, and other works. Except for a tower, almost no aboveground vestiges of the ancient city survive in Kadıköy today; artifacts uncovered at Altıyol and other excavation sites are on display at the Istanbul Archaeological Museum. The site of Chalcedon is located on a small peninsula on the north coast of the Sea of Marmara, near the mouth of the Bosphorus
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Justinian Dynasty
The Byzantine Empire had its first golden age under the Justinian Dynasty, which began in 518 AD with the Accession of Justin I. Under the Justinian Dynasty, particularly the reign of Justinian I, the Empire reached its largest territorial point, reincorporating North Africa, southern Illyria, southern Spain, and Italy into the Empire
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Amorium
Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838. It was situated on the Byzantine military road from Constantinople to Cilicia. Its ruins and höyük ('mound, tumulus') are located under and around the modern village of Hisarköy, 13 kilometers east of the district center, Emirdağ, Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey. Amorium is the Latinized version of its original Greek name Amorion (Greek: Ἀμόριον). Arab/Islamic sources refer to the city as ʿAmmūriye
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Arab
Arabs (/ˈær.əbz/; Arabic: عَرَبISO 233 ‘arab, Arabic pronunciation [ˈʕarab] (About this sound listen)) are a population inhabiting the Arab world
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Carthage
Carthage (/ˈkɑːrθɪ/, from Latin: Carthago; Phoenician: Qart-ḥadašt ("New city")) was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia. The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of an empire dominating the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC. The legendary Queen Dido is regarded as the founder of the city, though her historicity has been questioned. According to accounts by Timaeus of Tauromenium, she purchased from a local tribe the amount of land that could be covered by an oxhide. Cutting the skin into strips, she laid out her claim and founded an empire that would become, through the Punic Wars, the only existential threat to the Roman Empire until the coming of the Vandals several centuries later. The ancient city was
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Cyzicus
Cyzicus (/ˈsɪzɪkəs/; Ancient Greek: Κύζικος Kyzikos; Ottoman Turkish: آیدینجق‎, Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey
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