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Conspiracy Of Equals
The Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(French: Conjuration des Égaux) of May 1796 was a failed coup de main during the French Revolution. It was led by François-Noël Babeuf, who wanted to overthrow the Directory and replace it with an egalitarian and proto-socialist republic, inspired by Jacobin
Jacobin
ideals.Contents1 Background 2 Growth 3 Fall of the conspiracy 4 Legacy 5 ReferencesBackground[edit] It was the attempts of the Directory to deal with the economic crisis that gave Babeuf his historical importance. The new government was pledged to abolish the system by which Paris was fed at the expense of all France, and the cessation of the distribution of bread and meat at nominal prices was fixed for 20 February 1796. The announcement caused the most widespread consternation
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French First Republic
In the history of France, the First Republic
Republic
(French: Première République), officially the French Republic
Republic
(République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic
Republic
lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, although the form of the government changed several times
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Flight To Varennes
The royal Flight to Varennes
Varennes
(French: Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI
Louis XVI
of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris
Paris
in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier. They escaped only as far as the small town of Varennes, where they were arrested after having been recognized at their previous stop in Sainte-Menehould. The incident was a turning point after which popular hostility towards the French monarchy
French monarchy
as an institution, as well as towards the king and queen as individuals, became much more pronounced
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French Revolutionary Army
The French Revolutionary Army
French Revolutionary Army
(French: Armée révolutionnaire française) was the French force that fought the French Revolutionary Wars from 1792 to 1802
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Conspiracy (political)
In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of people united in the goal of usurping, altering or overthrowing an established political power. Typically, the final goal is to gain power through a revolutionary coup d'état or through assassination. A conspiracy can also be used for infiltration of the governing system. A conspiracy is to be contrasted with a cabal. The two are similar but have quite different connotations; in contrast to a cabal, a conspiracy usually looks to overthrow a fixed power instead of usurping it from within. A "conspiracy theory" is a belief that a conspiracy has actually been decisive in producing a political event which the theorists strongly disapprove of.[1]Contents1 Notable political conspiracies 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksNotable political conspiracies[edit] This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness
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Pseudonym
A pseudonym (/ˈsjuːdənɪm/ or /ˈsuːdənɪm/ SEW-də-nim) or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name (orthonym).[1] Pseudonyms include stage names and user names (both called screen names), ring names, pen names, nicknames, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, and regnal names of emperors, popes, and other monarchs. Historically, they have often taken the form of anagrams, Graecisms, and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym.[2] Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – usually adopted to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, and computer hackers' handles
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Lazare Carnot
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Count Carnot (13 May 1753 – 2 August 1823) was a French mathematician, physicist and politician. He was known as the Organizer of Victory in the French Revolutionary Wars.Contents1 Education and early life 2 Political career2.1 Military accomplishments2.1.1 Relationship with Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
and the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club 2.1.2 Relationship with Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte3 Retirement and legacy 4 Work in mathematics and theoretical engineering4.1 See Also5 Famous offspring 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksEducation and early life[edit] Born on May 13, 1753 in the village of Nolay, Côte-d'Or, Carnot was the son of local judge and royal notary, Claude Carnot and his wife, Marguerite Pothier. He was the second oldest of seven children
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National Convention
The National Convention
National Convention
(French: Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795 (4 Brumaire IV under the Convention's adopted calendar). The Convention came about when the Legislative Assembly, which had found it impossible to work with the king, decreed the provisional suspension of King Louis XVI
King Louis XVI
and the convocation of a National Convention to draw up a new constitution with no monarchy
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Postmaster
A postmaster is the head of an individual post office. When a postmaster is responsible for an entire mail distribution organization (usually sponsored by a national government), the title of Postmaster General is commonly used. Responsibilities of a postmaster typically include management of a centralized mail distribution facility, establishment of letter carrier routes, supervision of letter carriers and clerks, and enforcement of the organization's rules and procedures.[citation needed] In Canada, many early places are named after the first postmaster.Contents1 History 2 In the United States 3 Famous postmasters 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] In the days of horse-drawn carriages, a postmaster was an individual from whom horses and/or riders (known as postilions or "post-boys") could be hired
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Sainte-Menehould
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Sainte-Menehould
Sainte-Menehould
(French pronunciation: ​[sɛ̃t mənu]) is a commune in the Marne
Marne
department in north-eastern France
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Louis XVI Of France
Louis XVI (French pronunciation: ​[lwi sɛːz]; 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the final weeks of his life. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France
France
and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792. Louis XVI was guillotined on 21 January 1793. The first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform France
France
in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove the taille, and increase tolerance toward non-Catholics
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Council Of Five Hundred
The Council of Five Hundred
Council of Five Hundred
(Conseil des Cinq-Cents), or simply the Five Hundred, was the lower house of the legislature of France
France
under the Constitution of the Year III. It existed during the period commonly known (from the name of the executive branch during this time) as the Directory (Directoire), from 26 October 1795 until 9 November 1799: roughly the second half of the period generally referred to as the French Revolution.Contents1 Role and function 2 Elections of 1795 3 Elections of 1797 4 Elections of 1798 5 Coup of 18th Brumaire Year VIII 6 ReferencesRole and function[edit] The Council of Five Hundred
Council of Five Hundred
was established under the Constitution of Year III which was adopted by a referendum on 24 September 1795,[1] and constituted after the first elections which were held from 12–21 October 1795
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National Bankruptcy
A sovereign default (/ˈsɒvrɪn, -vərɪn/)[n 1] is the failure or refusal of the government of a sovereign state to pay back its debt in full. Cessation of due payments (or receivables) may either be accompanied by formal declaration (repudiation) of a government not to pay (or only partially pay) its debts, or it may be unannounced. A credit rating agency will take into account in its gradings capital, interest, extraneous and procedural defaults, failures to abide by the terms of bonds or other debt instruments. Countries have at times escaped the real burden of some of their debt through inflation. This is not "default" in the usual sense because the debt is honored, albeit with currency of lesser real value. Sometimes governments devalue their currency. This can be done by printing more money to apply toward their own debts, or by ending or altering the convertibility of their currencies into precious metals or foreign currency at fixed rates
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Vendôme
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Vendôme
Vendôme
(French pronunciation: ​[vɑ̃dom]) is a town in central France
France
and is a subprefecture of the department of Loir-et-Cher. It is also the department's third biggest town. It is one of the main towns along the river Loir. The river divides itself at the entrance of Vendôme, intersecting it into numerous different arms
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Grenelle
Grenelle (French pronunciation: ​[ɡʁənɛl]) is a neighbourhood in southwestern Paris, France. It is a part of the 15th arrondissement of the city. There is currently a Boulevard de Grenelle which runs along the North delimitation of the quartier, and a Rue de Grenelle, a few kilometers North-East in the 7th arrondissement. History[edit] In 52 BC, Garanella plain was the site of the Battle of Lutetia between the troops of the Gaulish chief Camulogène and the Roman legion under General Labienus
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Deportation
Deportation
Deportation
is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country
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