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Conspiracy Of Equals
The CONSPIRACY OF THE EQUALS (May 1796) was a failed coup de main during the French Revolution
French Revolution
. It was led by François-Noël Babeuf , who wanted overthrow the Directory and replace it with an egalitarian and proto-socialist republic, inspired by Jacobin ideals. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Growth * 3 Fall of the conspiracy * 4 Legacy * 5 References BACKGROUNDIt was the attempts of the Directory to deal with the economic crisis that gave Babeuf his historical importance. The new government was pledged to abolish the system by which Paris was fed at the expense of all France, and the cessation of the distribution of bread and meat at nominal prices was fixed for 20 February 1796. The announcement caused the most widespread consternation
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Postmaster
A POSTMASTER is the head of an individual post office . When a postmaster is responsible for an entire mail distribution organization (usually sponsored by a national government), the title of Postmaster General is commonly used. Responsibilities of a postmaster typically include management of a centralized mail distribution facility, establishment of letter carrier routes, supervision of letter carriers and clerks, and enforcement of the organization's rules and procedures. In the United States, women have served as postmasters since the Revolutionary War and even earlier, under British rule. In Canada, many early places are named after the first postmaster. CONTENTS * 1 Use in coaching * 2 Earnings in the US * 3 Famous postmasters * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links USE IN COACHINGIn the days of horse-drawn carriages , a postmaster was an individual from whom horses and/or riders (known as postilions or "post-boys") could be hired
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Sainte-Menehould
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. SAINTE-MENEHOULD (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a commune in the Marne
Marne
department in north-eastern France. The 18th-century French playwright Charles-Georges Fenouillot de Falbaire de Quingey (1727–1800) died in Sainte-Ménéhould. CONTENTS * 1 Cuisine * 2 History * 3 Twinning * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CUISINEThe town and its several restaurants pride themselves on serving a local specialty called pied de cochon or pig\'s trotter
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Louis XVI Of France
LOUIS XVI (French pronunciation: ​ ; 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born LOUIS-AUGUSTE, was the last King of France before the French Revolution
French Revolution
; during which he was also known as LOUIS CAPET. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis , son and heir apparent of Louis XV , Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France . Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France
France
and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792. Louis XVI was guillotined on 21 January 1793. The first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform France in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to abolish serfdom , remove the taille , and increase tolerance toward non-Catholics
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Flight To Varennes
The royal FLIGHT TO VARENNES (French : Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI of France
, his queen Marie Antoinette , and their immediate family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from Paris
Paris
in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier. They escaped only as far as the small town of Varennes
Varennes
, where they were arrested after having been recognized at their previous stop in Sainte-Menehould . The incident was a turning point after which popular hostility towards the French monarchy
French monarchy
as an institution, as well as towards the king and queen as individuals, became much more pronounced
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National Convention
The NATIONAL CONVENTION (French: Convention nationale) was the second government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly . Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792 , it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795 (4 Brumaire IV under the Convention\'s adopted calendar ). The Convention came about when the Legislative Assembly, which had found it impossible to work with the king, decreed the provisional suspension of King Louis XVI and the convocation of a National Convention to draw up a new constitution with no monarchy. The other major innovation was to decree that deputies to that Convention should be elected by all Frenchmen twenty-five years old or more, domiciled for a year and living by the product of their labor
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Lazare Carnot
LAZARE NICOLAS MARGUERITE, COUNT CARNOT (13 May 1753 – 2 August 1823) was a French politician, engineer, freemason and mathematician . He was known as the Organizer of Victory in the French Revolutionary Wars . CONTENTS * 1 Education and Early life * 2 Political career * 2.1 Military Accomplishments * 2.1.1 Relationship with Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
and the Jacobin Club * 2.1.2 Relationship with Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
* 3 Retirement and Legacy * 4 Work in Mathematics and Theoretical Engineering * 4.1 See Also * 5 Famous offspring * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links EDUCATION AND EARLY LIFEBorn on May 13, 1753 in the village of Nolay, Côte-d\'Or , Carnot was the son of local judge and royal notary, Claude Carnot and his wife, Marguerite Pothier
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Café
A COFFEEHOUSE, COFFEE SHOP or CAFé (sometimes spelled CAFE) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee , related coffee beverages (e.g., café latte , cappuccino , espresso ), tea , and other hot beverages. Some coffeehouses also serve cold beverages such as iced coffee and iced tea . Many cafés also serve some type of food, such as light snacks, muffins or pastries . Coffeehouses range from owner-operated small businesses to large multinational corporations. In continental Europe, cafés often serve alcoholic beverages and light food, but elsewhere the term "café" may also refer to a tea room , "greasy spoon " (a small and inexpensive restaurant, colloquially called a "caff"), transport café , or other casual eating and drinking place. A coffeehouse may share some of the same characteristics of a bar or restaurant , but it is different from a cafeteria
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French First Republic
In the history of France
France
, the FIRST REPUBLIC, officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française), was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution
French Revolution
. The First Republic
Republic
lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon
Napoleon
, although the form of the government changed several times. This period was characterized by the fall of the monarchy , the establishment of the National Convention
National Convention
and the Reign of Terror , the Thermidorian Reaction and the founding of the Directory , and, finally, the creation of the Consulate and Napoleon's rise to power
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Conspiracy (political)
In a political sense, CONSPIRACY refers to a group of people united in the goal of usurping, altering or overthrowing an established political power. Typically, the final goal is to gain power through a revolutionary coup d\'état or through assassination . A conspiracy can also be used for infiltration of the governing system. A conspiracy is to be contrasted with a cabal . The two are similar but have quite different connotations; in contrast to a cabal, a conspiracy usually looks to overthrow a fixed power instead of usurping it from within. A "conspiracy theory " is a belief that a conspiracy has actually been decisive in producing a political event which the theorists strongly disapprove of. CONTENTS * 1 Notable political conspiracies * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links NOTABLE POLITICAL CONSPIRACIES This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness
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Pseudonym
A PSEUDONYM (UK : /ˈsjuːdənɪm/ SYOO-də-nim and US : /ˈsuːdənɪm/ SOO-də-nim ) or ALIAS is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name (orthonym ). Pseudonyms include stage names and user names (both called screen names), ring names , pen names , nicknames , aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, and regnal names of emperors , popes , and other monarchs . Historically, they have often taken the form of anagrams , Graecisms, and Latinisations , although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name
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Council Of Five Hundred
The COUNCIL OF FIVE HUNDRED (CONSEIL DES CINQ-CENTS), or simply THE FIVE HUNDRED, was the lower house of the legislature of France
France
under the Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
. It existed during the period commonly known (from the name of the executive branch during this time) as the Directory (Directoire), from 26 October 1795 until 9 November 1799: roughly the second half of the period generally referred to as the French Revolution
French Revolution

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Vendôme
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. VENDôME (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a town in central France
France
and is a subprefecture of the department of Loir-et-Cher . It is also the department's third biggest town. It is one of the main towns along the river Loir
Loir
. The river divides itself at the entrance of Vendôme, intersecting it into numerous different arms. The town has a rich medieval history and many historical monuments
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Goodwyn Barmby
JOHN GOODWYN BARMBY (1820–1881) was a British Victorian utopian socialist . He and his wife CATHERINE BARMBY (died 1854) were influential supporters of Robert Owen in the late 1830s and early 1840s before moving into the radical Unitarian stream of Christianity in the 1840s. Both had established reputations as staunch feminists , and proposed the addition of women\'s suffrage to the demands of the Chartist movement . Barmby was involved as an editor, writer and organiser of communitarian ventures around London from 1838 to 1848. He is often associated with the growth of socialist and utopian projects during the rise of Chartism . He founded a utopian community on the Channel Islands and at times corresponded with radicals including William James Linton and Friedrich Engels
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Online Etymology Dictionary
The ONLINE ETYMOLOGY DICTIONARY is a free online dictionary that describes the origins of English-language words. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Reviews and reputation * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTIONDouglas Harper (also known as "The Sciolist") compiled the etymology dictionary to record the history and evolution of more than 30,000 words, including slang and technical terms. The core body of its etymology information stems from Ernest Weekley 's An Etymological Dictionary
Dictionary
of Modern English (1921). Other sources include the Middle English Dictionary
Dictionary
and the Barnhart Dictionary
Dictionary
of Etymology
Etymology
(by Robert Barnhart and others). In producing his large dictionary, Douglas Harper says that he is essentially and for the most part a compiler, an evaluator of etymology reports which others have made
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Causes Of The French Revolution
The causes of the French revolution
French revolution
can be attributed to several intertwining factors: * Cultural: The Enlightenment philosophy desacralized the authority of the monarchy and the Catholic Church
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