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Conservative (linguistics)
In linguistics, a conservative form, variety, or modality is one that has changed relatively little over its history, or which is relatively resistant to change. It is the opposite of innovative or advanced forms or varieties, which have undergone relatively larger or more recent changes. A conservative linguistic form, such as a word, is one that remains closer to an older form from which it evolved, relative to cognate forms from the same source. For example, the Spanish word caro and the French word cher both evolved from the Latin
Latin
word cārum. The Spanish word, which is more similar to the common ancestor, is more conservative than its French cognate.[1] A language or language variety is said to be conservative if it has fewer innovations (in other words, more conservative forms) than related varieties do
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Conservatism (other)
Conservatism
Conservatism
is a set of political philosophies that favour tradition. Conservatism
Conservatism
or conservative may also refer to:A member or supporter
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Proto-Semitic Language
Proto-Semitic
Proto-Semitic
is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages
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Voiced Dental Fricative
The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages. It is familiar to English-speakers, as the th sound in father. Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
is eth, or [ð] and was taken from the Old English and Icelandic letter eth, which could stand for either a voiced or unvoiced interdental non-sibilant fricative
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Morphology (linguistics)
In linguistics, morphology (/mɔːrˈfɒlədʒi/[1]) is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.[2][3] It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Morphology also looks at parts of speech, intonation and stress, and the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning. Morphology differs from morphological typology, which is the classification of languages based on their use of words,[4] and lexicology, which is the study of words and how they make up a language's vocabulary.[5] While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language
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Indo-European Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Latin
Latin
alphabetLanguage codesISO 639-3 arzGlottolog egyp1253[2]This article contains IPA
IPA
phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA
IPA
symbols, see Help:IPA.This article contains Arabic
Arabic
text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians. Egyptian is a North African
North African
dialect of the Arabic language
Arabic language
which is a Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family
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Agglutination
Agglutination
Agglutination
is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics. Languages that use agglutination widely are called agglutinative languages. An example of such a language is Turkish, where for example, the word evlerinizden, or "from your houses", consists of the morphemes ev-ler-iniz-den with the meanings house-plural-your-from. Agglutinative languages are often contrasted both with languages in which syntactic structure is expressed solely by means of word order and auxiliary words (isolating languages) and with languages in which a single affix typically expresses several syntactic categories and a single category may be expressed by several different affixes (as is the case in inflectional (fusional) languages)
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Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Arabic
is the form of the Arabic language
Arabic language
used in Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi. Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(MSA) is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world
Arab world
in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content;[1] it is also used in modernized versions of the Quran
Quran
and revised editions of poetries and novels from Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
times (7th to 9th centuries)
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Syriac Language
Syriac /ˈsɪri.æk/ (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Leššānā Suryāyā), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac,[4][5][6] is a dialect of Middle Aramaic that is the minority language of indigenous ethnic Assyrians/Syriacs in south eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, northeastern Syria
Syria
and North western Iran
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Northeastern Neo-Aramaic
Northeastern Neo-Aramaic (often abbreviated NENA) is a term used by Semiticists to refer to a large variety of Modern Aramaic languages that were once spoken in a large region stretching from the plain of Urmia, in northwestern Iran, to the plain of Mosul, in northern Iraq, as well as bordering regions in south east Turkey
Turkey
and north east Syria.[2] As of the 1990s, the NENA group had an estimated number of fluent speakers among the Assyrians just below 500,000, spread throughout the Middle East and the Assyrian diaspora
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Germanic Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker U
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Georgian Language
Georgian (ქართული ენა, kartuli ena, pronounced [kʰɑrtʰuli ɛnɑ]) is a Kartvelian language
Kartvelian language
spoken by Georgians
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Kartvelian Languages
The Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
(Georgian: ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi) (also known as Iberian[2] and formerly[3] South Caucasian[4]) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus
Caucasus
and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel,[5] and northeastern parts of Turkey.[6] There are approximately 5.2 million speakers of Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
worldwide. The Kartvelian family is not known to be related to any other language family, making it one of the world's primary language families.[7] The first literary source in a Kartvelian language is the Georgian language inscriptions of Bir el Qutt, written in ancient Georgian Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
script at the Georgian monastery near Bethlehem,[8] which dates back to c
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Historical Linguistics
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.[1] Principal concerns of historical linguistics include:[2]to describe and account for observed changes in particular languages to reconstruct the pre-history of languages and to determine their relatedness, grouping them into language families (comparative linguistics) to develop general theories about how and why language changes to describe the history of speech communities to study the history of words, i.e
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