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Connective Tissue Growth Factor
NM_001901 NM_010217 REFSEQ (PROTEIN)NP_001892 NP_034347 LOCATION (UCSC) Chr 6: 131.95 – 131.95 Mb Chr 6: 24.6 – 24.6 Mb PUBMED SEARCH Wikidata View/Edit Human View/Edit MouseCTGF, also known as CCN2 or CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR, is a matricellular protein of the CCN family of extracellular matrix -associated heparin -binding proteins (see also CCN intercellular signaling protein ). CTGF has important roles in many biological processes, including cell adhesion , migration , proliferation , angiogenesis , skeletal development, and tissue wound repair, and is critically involved in fibrotic disease and several forms of cancers
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Slit (gene)
SLIT is a family of secreted extracellular matrix proteins which play an important signalling role in the neural development of most bilaterians (animals with bilateral symmetry). While lower animal species, including insects and nematode worms, possess a single Slit gene, humans, mice and other vertebrates possess three Slit homologs: Slit1 , Slit2 and Slit3 . Human
Human
Slits have been shown to be involved certain pathological conditions, such as cancer and inflammation. The ventral midline of the central nervous system is a key place where axons can either decide to cross and laterally project or stay on the same side of the brain. The main function of Slit proteins is to act as midline repellents, preventing the crossing of longitudinal axons through the midline of the central nervous system of most bilaterian animal species, including mice , chickens , humans , insects , nematode worms and planarians
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Fibulin-1
NM_006487 NM_001996 NM_006485 NM_006486 NM_010180 NM_001347088 REFSEQ (PROTEIN)NP_001987 NP_006476 NP_006477 NP_006478 NP_001334017 NP_034310 LOCATION (UCSC) Chr 22: 45.5 – 45.6 Mb Chr 22: 85.21 – 85.29 Mb PUBMED SEARCH Wikidata
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse FBLN1 is the gene encoding FIBULIN-1, an extracellular matrix and plasma protein. CONTENTS * 1 Function * 2 Structure * 3 Interactions * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading FUNCTIONFibulin-1 is a secreted glycoprotein that is found in association with extracellular matrix structures including fibronectin -containing fibers, elastin -containing fibers and basement membranes . Fibulin-1 binds to a number of extracellular matrix constituents including fibronectin , nidogen-1 , and the proteoglycan , versican . Fibulin-1 is also a blood protein capable of binding to fibrinogen
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Mucin
MUCINS (/ˈmjuːsɪn/ ) are a family of high molecular weight , heavily glycosylated proteins (glycoconjugates ) produced by epithelial tissues in most animals . Mucins' key characteristic is their ability to form gels ; therefore they are a key component in most gel-like secretions, serving functions from lubrication to cell signalling to forming chemical barriers. They often take an inhibitory role. Some mucins are associated with controlling mineralization , including nacre formation in mollusks , calcification in echinoderms and bone formation in vertebrates. They bind to pathogens as part of the immune system. Overexpression of the mucin proteins, especially MUC1 , is associated with many types of cancer
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Chondrodysplasia
OSTEOCHONDRODYSPLASIA or SKELETAL DYSPLASIA is a general term for a disorder of the development (dysplasia ) of bone ("osteo") and cartilage ("chondro"). Osteochondrodysplasias are rare diseases . About 1 in 5,000 babies are born with some type of skeletal dysplasia. CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Achondroplasia * 1.2 Cleidocranial dysostosis * 1.3 Fibrous dysplasia * 1.4 Langer-Giedion syndrome * 1.5 Maffucci syndrome * 1.6 Osteosclerosis * 1.7 Osteogenesis imperfecta * 1.8 Other * 2 References TYPESACHONDROPLASIA Main article: Achondroplasia Achondroplasia is a type of autosomal dominant genetic disorder that is the most common cause of dwarfism . Achondroplastic dwarfs have short stature , with an average adult height of 131 cm (4 feet, 3 inches) for males and 123 cm (4 feet, 0 inches) for females. The prevalence is approximately 1 in 25,000 births
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Perlecan
3SH4, 3SH5 IDENTIFIERS ALIASES HSPG2, HSPG, PLC, PRCAN, SJA, SJS, SJS1, heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 EXTERNAL IDS OMIM: 142461 MGI: 96257 HomoloGene: 68473 GeneCards: HSPG2 GENE ONTOLOGY MOLECULAR FUNCTION • metal ion binding • protein binding • calcium ion binding • protein C-terminus binding CELLULAR COMPONENT • basement membrane • Golgi lumen • extracellular exosome • lysosomal lumen • extracellular region • plasma membrane • proteinaceous extracellular matrix • extracellular matrix • focal adhesion • extracellular space BIOLOGICAL PROCESS • glycosaminoglycan metabolic process • extracellular matrix disassembly • cellular protein metabolic process • retinoid metabolic process • glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic process • glycosaminoglycan catabolic process • angiogenesis • extracellular matrix organization Sources:Amigo / QuickGO RNA EXPRESSION
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Fibronectin
1E88, 1E8B, 1FBR, 1FNA, 1FNF, 1FNH, 1J8K, 1O9A, 1OWW, 1Q38, 1QGB, 1QO6, 1TTF, 1TTG, 2CG6, 2CG7, 2CK2, 2CKU, 2EC3, 2FN2, 2FNB, 2GEE, 2H41, 2H45, 2HA1, 2OCF, 2RKY, 2RKZ, 2RL0, 3CAL, 3EJH, 3GXE, 3M7P, 3MQL, 3R8Q, 3ZRZ, 4GH7, 4JE4, 4JEG, 4LXO, 4MMX, 4MMY, 4MMZ, 4PZ5, 2N1K, 5DC4, 5DC0, 5DC9, 3T1W IDENTIFIERS ALIASES FN1, CIG, ED-B, FINC, FN, FNZ, GFND, GFND2, LETS, MSF, fibronectin 1 EXTERNAL IDS OMIM: 135600 MGI: 95566 HomoloGene: 1533 GeneCards: FN1 GENE ONTOLOGY MOLECULAR FUNCTION • heparin binding • collagen binding • integrin binding • protein binding • identical protein binding • peptidase activator activity • protease binding CELLULAR COMPONENT • blood microparticle • extracellular matrix • proteinaceous extracellular matrix • fibrinogen complex • basal lamina • extracellular region • basement membrane • apical plasma membrane • extracellular exosome • platelet alpha granule lumen
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Gene Nomenclature
GENE NOMENCLATURE is the scientific naming of genes , the units of heredity in living organisms. An international committee published recommendations for genetic symbols and nomenclature in 1957. The need to develop formal guidelines for human gene names and symbols was recognized in the 1960s and full guidelines were issued in 1979 (Edinburgh Human Genome Meeting). Several other genus -specific research communities (e.g., Drosophila
Drosophila
fruit flies, Mus mice) have adopted nomenclature standards, as well, and have published them on the relevant model organism websites and in scientific journals, including the Trends in Genetics Genetic Nomenclature Guide. Scientists familiar with a particular gene family may work together to revise the nomenclature for the entire set of genes when new information becomes available
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Cysteine Knot
A CYSTINE KNOT is a protein structural motif containing three disulfide bridges (formed from pairs of cysteine residues). The sections of polypeptide that occur between two of them form a loop through which a third disulfide bond passes, forming a rotaxane substructure. It occurs in many proteins across many species and provides considerable structural stability. There are three types of cystine knot, which differ in the topology of the disulfide bonds: * The Growth Factor Cystine Knot (GFCK) * Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK) common in spider and snail toxins * Cyclic Cystine Knot, or cyclotide The growth factor cystine knot (GFCK) was first observed in the structure of Nerve Growth Factor , solved by X-ray crystallography and published in 1991 by Tom Blundell in Nature . All GFCK structures that have been determined are dimeric, but their dimerization modes in different classes are different
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Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor
1AJJ, 1D2J, 1F5Y, 1HJ7, 1HZ8, 1I0U, 1IJQ, 1LDL, 1LDR, 1N7D, 1XFE, 2FCW, 2KRI, 2LGP, 2W2M, 2W2N, 2W2O, 2W2P, 2W2Q, 3BPS, 3GCW, 3GCX, 3M0C, 3SO6, 2M7P, 2MG9, 3P5B, 3P5C, 4NE9 IDENTIFIERS ALIASES LDLR, FH, FHC, LDLCQ2, low density lipoprotein receptor EXTERNAL IDS OMIM: 606945 MGI: 96765 HomoloGene: 55469 GeneCards: LDLR GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR. Chromosome
Chromosome
19 (human) BAND 19p13.2 START 11,089,362 bp END 11,133,816 bp GENE LOCATION (MOUSE) CHR
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Aggrecan
4MD4 IDENTIFIERS ALIASES ACAN, AGC1, AGCAN, CSPG1, CSPGCP, MSK16, SEDK, Aggrecan, SSOAOD EXTERNAL IDS HomoloGene: 136177 GeneCards: ACAN GENE LOCATION (HUMAN) CHR
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Ovarian Follicle
An OVARIAN FOLLICLE is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries . It secretes hormones that influence stages of the menstrual cycle . Women begin puberty with about 400,000 follicles, each with the potential to release an egg cell (ovum) at ovulation for fertilization . These eggs are developed only once every menstrual cycle . CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Oocyte * 1.2 Cumulus oophorus * 1.3 Membrana granulosa * 1.3.1 Granulosa cell * 1.4 Theca of follicle * 2 Development * 2.1 Development of oocytes in ovarian follicles * 3 Clinical significance * 4 Additional images * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTURE Section of vesicular ovarian follicle of cat. X 50
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Ovulation
OVULATION is the release of egg from the ovaries . In humans, this event occurs when the de Graaf\'s follicles rupture and release the secondary oocyte ovarian cells. After ovulation, during the luteal phase , the egg will be available to be fertilized by sperm . In addition, the uterine lining (endometrium ) is thickened to be able to receive a fertilized egg. If no conception occurs, the uterine lining as well as blood will be shed during menstruation
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Retinopathy
RETINOPATHY is any damage to the retina of the eyes, which may cause vision impairment. Retinopathy often refers to retinal vascular disease, or damage to the retina caused by abnormal blood flow. Age-related macular degeneration is technically included under the umbrella term retinopathy but is often discussed as a separate entity. Retinopathy, or retinal vascular disease, can be broadly categorized into PROLIFERATIVE and NON-PROLIFERATIVE types. Frequently, retinopathy is an ocular manifestation of systemic disease as seen in diabetes or hypertension . Diabetes is the most common cause of retinopathy in the U.S. as of 2008. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. It accounts for about 5% of blindness worldwide and is designated a priority eye disease by the World Health Organization
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Pancreatic Cancer
PANCREATIC CANCER arises when cells in the pancreas , a glandular organ behind the stomach , begin to multiply out of control and form a mass . These cancerous cells have the ability to invade other parts of the body. There are a number of types of pancreatic cancer. The most common, PANCREATIC ADENOCARCINOMA, accounts for about 85% of cases, and the term "pancreatic cancer" is sometimes used to refer only to that type. These adenocarcinomas start within the part of the pancreas which makes digestive enzymes . Several other types of cancer, which collectively represent the majority of the non-adenocarcinomas, can also arise from these cells. One to two percent of cases of pancreatic cancer are neuroendocrine tumors , which arise from the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. These are generally less aggressive than pancreatic adenocarcinoma
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