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Confucianism
Hermeneutic schools:Old TextsNew Text Confucianism Confucianism
Confucianism
by country Confucianism
Confucianism
in IndonesiaKorean ConfucianismJapanese Confucianism
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Jyutping
Jyutping
Jyutping
(Chinese: 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: [jỳːt̚.pʰēŋ]) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation
Romanisation
Scheme
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese
Cantonese
was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p
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Wu Chinese
Wu (Shanghainese: [ɦu˨˨ ɲy˦˦]; Suzhou
Suzhou
dialect: [ɦəu˨˨ ɲy˦˦]; Wuxi
Wuxi
dialect: [ŋ˨˨˧ nʲy˨˨]) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole city of Shanghai, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province and the southern half of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province, as well as bordering areas. Major Wu varieties include those of Shanghai, Suzhou, Ningbo, Wuxi, Wenzhou/Oujiang, Hangzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua
Jinhua
and Yongkang. Wu speakers, such as Chiang Kai-shek, Lu Xun
Lu Xun
and Cai Yuanpei, occupied positions of great importance in modern Chinese culture and politics
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Spelling In Gwoyeu Romatzyh
The spelling of Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
(GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials, finals and tones. GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA
IPA
[p] and [pʰ]. The letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin
Pinyin
zhu, not ju (which is spelled jiu in GR). Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations. Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or simply u in Pinyin
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Interactions Between Heaven And Mankind
Interactions between Heaven and Mankind (simplified Chinese: 天人感应; traditional Chinese: 天人感應; pinyin: Tiān-rén gǎnyìng) is a set of doctrines formulated by Chinese Han dynasty scholar Dong Zhongshu
Dong Zhongshu
which at that time became the basis for deciding the legitimacy of a monarch. At the same time, for the Confucian School of Thought, Interactions between Heaven and Mankind provided a set of checks and balances on a reigning monarch. This ganying in the title is a Chinese cultural keyword meaning "correlative resonance; stimulus and response; moral retribution". History[edit] Interactions Between Heaven and Mankind is said to originate from The Great Plan [of Jizi], the 24th Scroll of the Book of Documents
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Spring And Autumn Annals
The Spring and Autumn Annals
Annals
or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times. The Annals
Annals
is the official chronicle of the State of Lu, and covers a 241-year period from 722 to 481 BC
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Book Of Documents
The Book of Documents
Book of Documents
(Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature. It is a collection of rhetorical prose attributed to figures of ancient China, and served as the foundation of Chinese political philosophy for over 2,000 years. The Book of Documents
Book of Documents
was the subject of one of China's oldest literary controversies, between proponents of different versions of the text. The "New Text" version was preserved from Qin Shi Huang's burning of books and burying of scholars by scholar Fu Sheng
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Ruzang
The Ruzang or Confucian Canon (Chinese: 儒藏) is an ongoing project to compile all known classical works on Confucianism,[1] comparable to the Daozang (Taoist Canon) and the Chinese Buddhist Canon. It also includes Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese Confucian classics. The project, which involves 400 scholars, was led by the prominent Peking University philosopher Tang Yijie until his death in 2014. Due to be finished in 2025, the Canon is estimated to comprise more than 5,000 works with approximately a billion Chinese characters.[1] Notes[edit]^ a b Luo, Chris (2014-09-10). "China's top philosophy scholar and 'Sinology master' Tang Yijie dies at 87". South China Morning Post. External links[edit]儒藏网——四川大学古籍整理研究所 (Ruzang Net—Sichuan University Institute of Ancient Books) 北京大学儒藏编纂中心 (Beijing University Ruzang Compilation Center)This China-related article is a stub
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Spring And Autumn Period
The Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
(simplified Chinese: 春秋时代; traditional Chinese: 春秋時代; pinyin: Chūnqiū Shídài) was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC[a])[2] which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou
Eastern Zhou
Period. The period's name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC, which tradition associates with Confucius. During this period, the Zhou royal authority over the various feudal states started to decline, as more and more dukes and marquesses obtained de facto regional autonomy, defying the king's court in Luoyi, and waging wars amongst themselves
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Loyalty
Loyalty, the definition of loyalty in law and political science is the fidelity of an individual to a nation, either one's nation of birth, or one's declared home nation by oath (nationalization). In general use, loyalty is a devotion and faithfulness to a nation, cause, philosophy, country, group, or person
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Dong Zhongshu
Dong Zhongshu
Dong Zhongshu
(Chinese: 董仲舒; Wade–Giles: Tung Chung-shu; 179–104 BC) was a Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
Chinese scholar. He is traditionally associated with the promotion of Confucianism
Confucianism
as the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state. He apparently favored heaven worship over the tradition of cults celebrating the five elements.[1] Ultimately banished to the Chancellery of Weifang
Weifang
by his adversary Gongsun Hong, Gongsun effectively promoted Dong's partial retirement from political life, and his teachings were transmitted from there.[2] However, he apparently enjoyed great influence in the court in last decades of his life leading up to that.[3]Contents1 History 2 References2.1 Citations 2.2 Works citedHistory[edit] Dong was born in modern Hengshui, Hebei in 179 BC
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