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Comte De Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
(French pronunciation: ​[ʒɔʁʒ lwi ləklɛʁ kɔ̃t də byfɔ̃]; 7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste. His works influenced the next two generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
and Georges Cuvier
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American Academy Of Arts And Sciences
Coordinates: 42°22′51″N 71°06′37″W / 42.380755°N 71.110256°W / 42.380755; -71.110256American Academy of Arts and Sciences American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
logoMotto To cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honour, dignity, and happiness of a free, independent, and virtuous people.Formation May 4, 1780 (1780-05-04)Type Honorary society and center for policy researchPurpose Honoring excellence and providing service to the nation and the worldHeadquarters Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.Membership4,900 fellows and 600 foreign honorary membersWebsite www.amacad.orgThe House of the Academy, Cambridge, MassachusettsThe American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America
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Jacques Necker
Jacques Necker
Jacques Necker
(IPA: [ʒak nɛkɛʁ]; 30 September 1732 – 9 April 1804) was a banker of Genevan origin who became a French statesman and finance minister for Louis XVI. He held the finance post during the period 1777-1781 and helped make decisions that were critical in creating political and social conditions that contributed to the outbreak of the French Revolution
French Revolution
in 1789. He was recalled to royal service just before the Revolution actually did start, but remained in office for only a brief period of time. His elder brother was the mathematician Louis Necker (1730–1804).Contents1 Early life 2 Finance Minister of France 3 In the Revolution 4 Retirement 5 Family 6 Places named after Jacques Necker 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 See also 10 External linksEarly life[edit]This article needs additional citations for verification
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University Of Angers
The University of Angers
Angers
(French: Université d'Angers) is an institution of higher education situated in the town of the same name, in western France
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Evelyn Pierrepont, 2nd Duke Of Kingston-upon-Hull
General Evelyn Pierrepont, 2nd Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull, KG (1711 – 23 September 1773) was an English nobleman and landowner, a member of the House of Lords. He was the only son of William Pierrepont, Earl of Kingston (1692–1713) and his wife, Rachel Bayntun (1695–1722). His paternal grandparents were Evelyn Pierrepont, 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull and his wife Mary Feilding, a daughter of William Feilding, 3rd Earl of Denbigh, while his maternal grandparents were Elizabeth Willoughby and her husband Thomas Bayntun of Little Chalfield, Wiltshire, or else her lover John Hall of Bradford-on-Avon. He succeeded his grandfather in 1726, inheriting the Thoresby estate in Nottinghamshire. Pierrepont was the subject of the earliest extant reference to cricket in Nottinghamshire
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Pierre Daubenton
Pierre Daubenton (10 April 1703 – 14 September 1776) was an 18th-century French lawyer, politician, author and Encyclopédiste.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Bibliography 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] He was the son of Jean Daubenton (1669–1736) and Marie Pichenot (* ca. 1680).[2] The naturalist Louis Jean-Marie Daubenton (1716–1800) was his brother. In his hometown Montbard he was first a lawyer at the local court, and later mayor, garrison commander, Lieutenant of Police and officer of the local army. Very interested in natural history subjects, Pierre daubenton contributed the Encyclopédie by Diderot many articles on topics related to botany and zoology and also on agricultural issues. On 22 October 1737, he married Bernarde Amyot who gave birth to a son, Georges Louis Daubenton (1739–1785). Bibliography[edit]Louise Lyle; David McCallam (Edit.): Histoires de La Terre: Earth Sciences and French Culture 1740–1940
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Encyclopédie
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts),[1] better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France
France
between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations. It had many writers, known as the Encyclopédistes. It was edited by Denis Diderot and, until 1759, co-edited by Jean le Rond d'Alembert. The Encyclopédie
Encyclopédie
is most famous for representing the thought of the Enlightenment
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François-Hubert Drouais
François-Hubert Drouais
François-Hubert Drouais
(December 14, 1727 – October 21, 1775) was a French painter and the father of Jean-Germain Drouais.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Gallery 4 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Drouais was born and died in Paris. He was the father of Jean-Germain Drouais, a historical painter. Career[edit] Drouais specialized in portraits of the French royalty, nobility, foreign aristocrats, writers, and other artists.[1] He was a pupil of Donat Nonnotte. Some of his portraits include Louis XV, his wife Marie Leszczyńska the queen of France, his last two mistresses, Madame de Pompadour
Madame de Pompadour
and Madame du Barry
Madame du Barry
respectively
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French Livre
The livre (English: pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
and its predecessor state of West Francia
West Francia
from 781 to 1794. Several different livres existed, some concurrently. The livre was the name of both units of account and coins.Contents1 History1.1 Origin and etymology 1.2 Late medieval and early modern period 1.3 Seventeenth century 1.4 Eighteenth century 1.5 Later history2 ReferencesHistory[edit] Origin and etymology[edit] The livre was established by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as a unit of account equal to one pound of silver. It was subdivided into 20 sous (also sols), each of 12 deniers. The word livre came from the Latin word libra, a Roman unit of weight
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Calculus
Calculus
Calculus
(from Latin
Latin
calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus)[1] is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two major branches, differential calculus (concerning rates of change and slopes of curves),[2] and integral calculus (concerning accumulation of quantities and the areas under and between curves).[3] These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus. Both branches make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series to a well-defined limit. Generally, modern calculus is considered to have been developed in the 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
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French Revolution
The French Revolution
Revolution
(French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France
France
and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799. It was partially carried forward by Napoleon
Napoleon
during the later expansion of the French Empire. The Revolution
Revolution
overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon
Napoleon
who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond
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Probability Theory
Probability
Probability
theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability. Although there are several different probability interpretations, probability theory treats the concept in a rigorous mathematical manner by expressing it through a set of axioms. Typically these axioms formalise probability in terms of a probability space, which assigns a measure taking values between 0 and 1, termed the probability measure, to a set of outcomes called the sample space. Any specified subset of these outcomes is called an event. Central subjects in probability theory include discrete and continuous random variables, probability distributions, and stochastic processes, which provide mathematical abstractions of non-deterministic or uncertain processes or measured quantities that may either be single occurrences or evolve over time in a random fashion. Although it is not possible to perfectly predict random events, much can be said about their behavior
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Heart
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.[1] Blood
Blood
provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, as well as assists in the removal of metabolic wastes.[2] In humans, the heart is located between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest.[3] In humans, other mammals, and birds, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria; and lower left and right ventricles.[4][5] Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart and their left counterparts as the left heart.[6] Fish, in contrast, have two chambers, an atrium and a ventricle, while reptiles have three chambers.[5] In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow.[3] The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid
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Gabriel Cramer
Gabriel Cramer
Gabriel Cramer
(French: [kʁamɛʁ]; 31 July 1704 – 4 January 1752) was a Genevan mathematician. He was the son of physician Jean Cramer and Anne Mallet Cramer.Contents1 Biography 2 Selected works 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Cramer showed promise in mathematics from an early age. At 18 he received his doctorate and at 20 he was co-chair[1] of mathematics at the University of Geneva. In 1728 he proposed a solution to the St. Petersburg Paradox that came very close to the concept of expected utility theory given ten years later by Daniel Bernoulli. He published his best-known work in his forties. This included his treatise on algebraic curves (1750). It contains the earliest demonstration that a curve of the n-th degree is determined by n(n + 3)/2 points on it, in general position
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Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, Count Of Maurepas
Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, 1st Count of Maurepas (9 July 1701 – 21 November 1781) was a French statesman and Count of Maurepas.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early years 1.2 Political rising 1.3 Political decline2 Legacy 3 References 4 See alsoBiography[edit] Early years[edit]Portrait of a young MaurepasHe was born at Versailles, of a family of administrative nobility, the son of Jérôme Phélypeaux, secretary of state for the marine and the royal household. Under the guidance of his father, his grandfather and his cousin Louis Phélypeaux, marquis de La Vrillière, Jean-Frederic was trained from childhood to be secretary of state to the king of France. Jean-Frederic had right en survivance to the position of secretary of state, under Philippe II, as his father Jerome had purchased the office with the right of inheritance.[1] In 1718 at the age of 17, Jean became the minister of the royal household and Comte de Maurepas under the guardianship of his cousin La Vrillière
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Wood
Wood
Wood
is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood
Wood
is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees,[1] or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs.[citation needed] In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, and the roots
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