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Computer Network A COMPUTER NETWORK or DATA NETWORK is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, networked computing devices exchange data with each other using a data link . The connections between nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media . Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers , phones , servers as well as networking hardware . Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. In most cases, applicationspecific communications protocols are layered (i.e. carried as payload ) over other more general communications protocols. This formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably [...More...]  "Computer Network" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Social Influence SOCIAL INFLUENCE occurs when a person's emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others. Social influence takes many forms and can be seen in conformity , socialization , peer pressure , obedience, leadership , persuasion , sales , and marketing . In 1958, Harvard psychologist Herbert Kelman identified three broad varieties of social influence. * COMPLIANCE is when people appear to agree with others but actually keep their dissenting opinions private. * IDENTIFICATION is when people are influenced by someone who is liked and respected, such as a famous celebrity. * INTERNALIZATION is when people accept a belief or behavior and agree both publicly and privately.Morton Deutsch and Harold Gerard described two psychological needs that lead humans to conform to the expectations of others. These include our need to be right (informational social influence ) and our need to be liked (normative social influence ) [...More...]  "Social Influence" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Neighbourhood (graph Theory) In graph theory , an ADJACENT VERTEX of a vertex v in a graph is a vertex that is connected to v by an edge . The NEIGHBOURHOOD of a vertex v in a graph G is the induced subgraph of G consisting of all vertices adjacent to v. For example, the image shows a graph of 6 vertices and 7 edges. Vertex 5 is adjacent to vertices 1, 2, and 4 but it is not adjacent to 3 and 6. The neighbourhood of vertex 5 is the graph with three vertices, 1, 2, and 4, and one edge connecting vertices 1 and 2. The neighbourhood is often denoted NG(v) or (when the graph is unambiguous) N(v). The same neighbourhood notation may also be used to refer to sets of adjacent vertices rather than the corresponding induced subgraphs. The neighbourhood described above does not include v itself, and is more specifically the OPEN NEIGHBOURHOOD of v; it is also possible to define a neighbourhood in which v itself is included, called the CLOSED NEIGHBOURHOOD and denoted by NG [...More...]  "Neighbourhood (graph Theory)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Datacom (other) DATACOM may refer to: * Data communications or data transmission * DATACOM/DB , a relational database for IBM mainframes * Datacom Group , a New Zealandbased IT company This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title DATACOM. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intende [...More...]  "Datacom (other)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Network Effect A NETWORK EFFECT (also called NETWORK EXTERNALITY or DEMANDSIDE ECONOMIES OF SCALE) is the effect described in economics and business that one user of a good or service has on the value of that product to others. When a network effect is present, the value of a product or service is dependent on the number of others using it. The classic example is the telephone , where a greater number of users increases the value to each. A positive externality is created when a telephone is purchased without its owner intending to create value for other users, but does so regardless. Online social networks work similarly, with sites like Twitter and Facebook increasing in value to each member as more users join. The expression "network effect" is applied most commonly to positive network externalities as in the case of the telephone [...More...]  "Network Effect" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Balance Theory In the psychology of motivation , BALANCE THEORY is a theory of attitude change , proposed by Fritz Heider . It conceptualizes the cognitive consistency motive as a drive toward psychological balance. The consistency motive is the urge to maintain one's values and beliefs over time. Heider proposed that "sentiment" or liking relationships are balanced if the affect valence in a system multiplies out to a positive result. In social network analysis , balance theory is the extension proposed by Frank Harary and Dorwin Cartwright. It was the framework for the discussion at a Dartmouth College Dartmouth College symposium in September 1975 [...More...]  "Balance Theory" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Transitive Relation In mathematics , a binary relation R over a set X is TRANSITIVE if whenever an element a is related to an element b, and b is in turn related to an element c, then a is also related to c. Transitivity (or transitiveness) is a key property of both partial order relations and equivalence relations [...More...]  "Transitive Relation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Preferential Attachment A PREFERENTIAL ATTACHMENT PROCESS is any of a class of Citation dynamics processes in which some quantity, typically some form of wealth or credit, is distributed among a number of individuals or objects according to how much they already have, so that those who are already wealthy receive more than those who are not. "Preferential attachment" is only the most recent of many names that have been given to such processes. They are also referred to under the names "Yule process", "cumulative advantage", "the rich get richer", and, less correctly, the " Matthew effect ". They are also related to Gibrat\'s law . The principal reason for scientific interest in preferential attachment is that it can, under suitable circumstances, generate power law distributions [...More...]  "Preferential Attachment" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Loop (graph Theory) In graph theory , a LOOP (also called a SELFLOOP or a "buckle") is an edge that connects a vertex to itself. A simple graph contains no loops. Depending on the context, a graph or a multigraph may be defined so as to either allow or disallow the presence of loops (often in concert with allowing or disallowing multiple edges between the same vertices): * Where graphs are defined so as to allow loops and multiple edges, a graph without loops or multiple edges is often distinguished from other graphs by calling it a "simple graph". * Where graphs are defined so as to disallow loops and multiple edges, a graph that does have loops or multiple edges is often distinguished from the graphs that satisfy these constraints by calling it a "multigraph" or "pseudograph ".CONTENTS * 1 Degree * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DEGREEFor an undirected graph , the degree of a vertex is equal to the number of adjacent vertices [...More...]  "Loop (graph Theory)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Edge (graph Theory) This is a GLOSSARY OF GRAPH THEORY TERMS. Graph theory Graph theory is the study of graphs , systems of nodes or vertices connected in pairs by edges . Contents : * !$@ * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z * See also * References !$@ [] G is the induced subgraph of a graph G for vertex subset S.. prime symbol ′ The prime symbol is often used to modify notation for graph invariants so that it applies to the line graph instead of the given graph. For instance, α(G) is the independence number of a graph; α′(G) is the matching number of the graph, which equals the independence number of its line graph. Similarly, χ(G) is the chromatic number of a graph; χ ′(G) is the chromatic index of the graph, which equals the chromatic number of its line graph [...More...]  "Edge (graph Theory)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Connected Component (graph Theory) In graph theory , a CONNECTED COMPONENT (or just COMPONENT) of an undirected graph is a subgraph in which any two vertices are connected to each other by paths , and which is connected to no additional vertices in the supergraph. For example, the graph shown in the illustration has three connected components. A vertex with no incident edges is itself a connected component. A graph that is itself connected has exactly one connected component, consisting of the whole graph. CONTENTS * 1 An equivalence relation * 2 The number of connected components * 3 Algorithms * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links AN EQUIVALENCE RELATIONAn alternative way to define connected components involves the equivalence classes of an equivalence relation that is defined on the vertices of the graph. In an undirected graph, a vertex v is reachable from a vertex u if there is a path from u to v [...More...]  "Connected Component (graph Theory)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Dependency Network The DEPENDENCY NETWORK approach provides a system level analysis of the activity and topology of directed networks . The approach extracts causal topological relations between the network's nodes (when the network structure is analyzed), and provides an important step towards inference of causal activity relations between the network nodes (when analyzing the network activity). This methodology has originally been introduced for the study of financial data, it has been extended and applied to other systems, such as the immune system , and semantic networks . In the case of network activity, the analysis is based on partial correlations , which are becoming ever more widely used to investigate complex systems . In simple words, the partial (or residual) correlation is a measure of the effect (or contribution) of a given node, say j, on the correlations between another pair of nodes, say i and k [...More...]  "Dependency Network" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Flow Network In graph theory , a FLOW NETWORK (also known as a TRANSPORTATION NETWORK) is a directed graph where each edge has a CAPACITY and each edge receives a flow. The amount of flow on an edge cannot exceed the capacity of the edge. Often in operations research , a directed graph is called a NETWORK, the vertices are called NODES and the edges are called ARCS. A flow must satisfy the restriction that the amount of flow into a node equals the amount of flow out of it, unless it is a SOURCE, which has only outgoing flow, or SINK, which has only incoming flow. A network can be used to model traffic in a road system, circulation with demands, fluids in pipes, currents in an electrical circuit, or anything similar in which something travels through a network of nodes [...More...]  "Flow Network" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Cut (graph Theory) In graph theory , a CUT is a partition of the vertices of a graph into two disjoint subsets . Any cut determines a CUTSET, the set of edges that have one endpoint in each subset of the partition. These edges are said to CROSS the cut. In a connected graph , each cutset determines a unique cut, and in some cases cuts are identified with their cutsets rather than with their vertex partitions. In a flow network , an S–T CUT is a cut that requires the source and the sink to be in different subsets, and its cutset only consists of edges going from the source's side to the sink's side. The capacity of an s–t cut is defined as the sum of capacity of each edge in the cutset [...More...]  "Cut (graph Theory)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Cycle (graph Theory) In graph theory , a CYCLE is a path of edges and vertices wherein a vertex is reachable from itself. There are several different types of cycles, principally a CLOSED WALK and a SIMPLE CYCLE; also, e.g., an element of the cycle space of the graph. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Chordless cycles * 3 Cycle space Cycle space * 4 Cycle detection * 5 Covering graphs by cycles * 6 Graph classes defined by cycles * 7 See also * 8 References DEFINITIONSA CLOSED WALK consists of a sequence of vertices starting and ending at the same vertex, with each two consecutive vertices in the sequence adjacent to each other in the graph. In a directed graph, each edge must be traversed by the walk consistently with its direction: the edge must be oriented from the earlier of two consecutive vertices to the later of the two vertices in the sequence [...More...]  "Cycle (graph Theory)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Graph (abstract Data Type) In computer science , a GRAPH is an abstract data type that is meant to implement the undirected graph and directed graph concepts from mathematics , specifically the field of graph theory . A graph data structure consists of a finite (and possibly mutable) set of vertices or nodes or points, together with a set of unordered pairs of these vertices for an undirected graph or a set of ordered pairs for a directed graph. These pairs are known as edges, arcs, or lines for an undirected graph and as arrows, directed edges, directed arcs, or directed lines for a directed graph. The vertices may be part of the graph structure, or may be external entities represented by integer indices or references . A graph data structure may also associate to each edge some edge value, such as a symbolic label or a numeric attribute (cost, capacity, length, etc.) [...More...]  "Graph (abstract Data Type)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 