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Computer Forensics
Computer forensics
Computer forensics
(also known as computer forensic science[1]) is a branch of digital forensic science pertaining to evidence found in computers and digital storage media. The goal of computer forensics is to examine digital media in a forensically sound manner with the aim of identifying, preserving, recovering, analyzing and presenting facts and opinions about the digital information. Although it is most often associated with the investigation of a wide variety of computer crime, computer forensics may also be used in civil proceedings. The discipline involves similar techniques and principles to data recovery, but with additional guidelines and practices designed to create a legal audit trail. Evidence from computer forensics investigations is usually subjected to the same guidelines and practices of other digital evidence. It has been used in a number of high-profile cases and is becoming widely accepted as reliable within U.S
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Social Science
Social science
Social science
is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It in turn has many branches, each of which is considered a social science. The social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, economics, history, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science , psychology, public health, and sociology. The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original 'science of society', established in the 19th century. A more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences can be found at Outline of social science. Positivist
Positivist
social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense
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Traffic Collision Reconstruction
Vehicular accident reconstruction is the scientific process of investigating, analyzing, and drawing conclusions about the causes and events during a vehicle collision. Reconstructionists are employed to conduct in-depth collision analysis and reconstruction to identify the collision causation and contributing factors in different types of collisions, including the role of the driver(s), vehicle(s), roadway and the environment. The laws of physics and engineering principles such as the conservation of linear momentum, work-energy methods, and kinematics are the basis for these analyses and may make use of software to calculate useful quantities. The accident reconstruction provides rigorous analysis that an expert witnesses can present at trial. Accident reconstructions are done in cases involving fatalities, and often when personal injury is involved
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Forensic Video Analysis
Forensic video analysis
Forensic video analysis
is the scientific examination, comparison and/or evaluation of video in legal matters.[1] This is a list of notable forensic video analysis software.Name Descriptioninput-ace.com input-ace.com is a forensic video analysis software built for public safety crime and collision investigations, security, forensic engineering professionals and video experts
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Forensic Footwear Evidence
Forensic footwear evidence
Forensic footwear evidence
can be used in legal proceedings to help prove that a shoe was at a crime scene. Footwear evidence is often the most abundant form of evidence at a crime scene and in some cases can prove to be as specific as a fingerprint. Initially investigators will look to identify the make and model of the shoe or trainer which made an impression. This can be done visually or by comparison with evidence in a database; both methods focus heavily on pattern recognition and brand or logo marks. Information about the footwear can be gained from the analysis of wear patterns which are dependent on angle of footfall and weight distribution
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Forensic Arts
Forensic art is any art used in law enforcement or legal proceedings. Forensic art is used to assist law enforcement with the visual aspects of a case, often using witness descriptions and video footage.[1] It is a highly specialised field that covers a wide range of artistic skills, such as composite drawing, crime scene sketching, image modification and identification, courtroom drawings, demonstrative evidence, and postmortem and facial approximation aids. It is rare for a forensic artist to specialise in more than one of these skills.[2] The following is a breakdown of different skills and what they involve:Composite Drawing: the main objective is to help investigators generate leads based on physical dsescriptions
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Forensic Profiling
Forensic
Forensic
profiling is the study of trace evidence in order to develop information which can be used by police authorities. This information can be used to identify suspects and convict them in a court of law. The term "forensic" in this context refers to "information that is used in court as evidence" (Geradts & Sommer 2006, p. 10). The traces originate from criminal or litigious activities themselves. However traces are information that is not strictly dedicated to the court
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Glove Prints
Glove prints, also sometimes described as gloveprints or glove marks, are latent, fingerprint-like impressions that are transferred to a surface or object by an individual who is wearing gloves. Many criminals often wear gloves to avoid leaving fingerprints, which makes the crime investigation more difficult. Although the gloves act as a protective covering for the wearer's prints, the gloves themselves can leave prints that are just as unique as human fingerprints, thus betraying the wearer. After collecting glove prints, law enforcement can then match them to gloves that they have collected as evidence as well as glove prints retrieved from other crime scenes.[1]Contents1 History 2 Prints from different glove types 3 Notable instances 4 Further reading 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Since the advent of fingerprint detection, many criminals have resorted to the wearing of gloves during the commission of their crimes in order to avoid leaving their fingerprints as evidence
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Palm Print
A palm print refers to an image acquired of the palm region of the hand. It can be either an online image (i.e. taken by a scanner or CCD) or offline image where the image is taken with ink and paper.[1] The palm itself consists of principal lines, wrinkles (secondary lines), and epidermal ridges. It differs to a fingerprint in that it also contains other information such as texture, indents and marks which can be used when comparing one palm to another. Palm prints can be used for criminal, forensic, or commercial applications. Palm prints, typically from the butt of the palm, are often found at crime scenes as the result of the offender's gloves slipping during the commission of the crime, and thus exposing part of the unprotected hand.[2][3] References[edit] Media related to Palm prints at Wikimedia Commons^ Zhang, D. (2004). Palmprint Authentication, Kluwer Academic Publishers. ^ Fisher, Barry A.J. Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation. Boca Raton, CRC Press. 2004
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Questioned Document Examination
In forensic science, questioned document examination (QDE) is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law. Its primary purpose is to provide evidence about a suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and methods
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Vein Matching
Vein matching, also called vascular technology,[1] is a technique of biometric identification through the analysis of the patterns of blood vessels visible from the surface of the skin.[2] Though used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
and the Central Intelligence Agency,[3] this method of identification is still in development and has not yet been universally adopted by crime labs as it is not considered as reliable as more established techniques, such as fingerprinting. However, it can be used in conjunction with existing forensic data in support of a conclusion.[2][4] While other types of biometric scanners are more popular for security systems, Vascular scanners are growing in popularity
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Forensic Photography
Forensic photography, also referred to as crime scene photography, is an activity that records the initial appearance of the crime scene and physical evidence, in order to provide a permanent record for the courts.[1] Crime scene
Crime scene
photography differs from other variations of photography because crime scene photographers usually have a very specific purpose for capturing each image.[2] Crime scenes can be major sources of physical evidence that is used to associate or link suspects to scenes, victims to scenes, and suspects to victims. This is Locard's exchange principle. It is the basic tenet of why crime scenes should be investigated. Anything found at a crime scene can be physical evidence. In scientific crime scene investigation, the first activities at the crime scene are essential for the successful preservation of the physical evidence
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Audio Forensics
Audio forensics
Audio forensics
is the field of forensic science relating to the acquisition, analysis, and evaluation of sound recordings that may ultimately be presented as admissible evidence in a court of law or some other official venue.[1][2][3] Audio forensic evidence may come from a criminal investigation by law enforcement or as part of an official inquiry into an accident, fraud, accusation of slander, or some other civil incident.[4] The primary aspects of audio forensics are establishing the authenticity of audio evidenc
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Fingerprint
A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.[1] The recovery of fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Fingerprints are easily deposited on suitable surfaces (such as glass or metal or polished stone) by the natural secretions of sweat from the eccrine glands that are present in epidermal ridges. These are sometimes referred to as "Chanced Impressions". In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human or other primate hand
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Forensic Electrical Engineering
Forensic electrical engineering
Forensic electrical engineering
is a branch of forensic engineering, and is concerned with investigating electrical failures and accidents in a legal context. Many forensic electrical engineering investigations apply to fires suspected to be caused by electrical failures. Forensic electrical engineers are most commonly retained by insurance companies or attorneys representing insurance companies, or by manufacturers or contractors defending themselves against subrogation by insurance companies. Other areas of investigation include accident investigation involving electrocution, and intellectual property disputes such as patent actions
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Forensic Engineering
Forensic engineering
Forensic engineering
is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property. The consequences of failure are dealt with by the law of product liability. The field also deals with retracing processes and procedures leading to accidents in operation of vehicles or machinery. The subject is applied most commonly in civil law cases, although it may be of use in criminal law cases. Generally, the purpose of a forensic engineering investigation is to locate cause or causes of failure with a view to improve performance or life of a component, or to assist a court in determining the facts of an accident
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