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Complexity Complexity Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions.[1] The stem of the word "complexity"  complex  combines the Latin roots com (meaning "together") and plex (meaning "woven"). Contrast "complicated" where plic (meaning "folded") refers to many layers. A complex system is thereby characterised by its interdependencies, whereas a complicated system is characterised by its layers. Complexity Complexity is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence greater than the sum of its parts [...More...]  "Complexity" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Programming Complexity Programming complexity (or software complexity) is a term that encompasses numerous properties of a piece of software, all of which affect internal interactions. According to several commentators, there is a distinction between the terms complex and complicated. Complicated implies being difficult to understand but with time and effort, ultimately knowable. Complex, on the other hand, describes the interactions between a number of entities. As the number of entities increases, the number of interactions between them would increase exponentially, and it would get to a point where it would be impossible to know and understand all of them. Similarly, higher levels of complexity in software increase the risk of unintentionally interfering with interactions and so increases the chance of introducing defects when making changes. In more extreme cases, it can make modifying the software virtually impossible [...More...]  "Programming Complexity" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Entropy (statistical Thermodynamics) In classical statistical mechanics, the entropy function earlier introduced by Rudolf Clausius Rudolf Clausius is interpreted as statistical entropy using probability theory. The statistical entropy perspective was introduced in 1870 with the work of physicist Ludwig Boltzmann.Contents1 Gibbs entropy formula 2 Boltzmann's principle2.1 Ensembles3 Lack of knowledge and the second law of thermodynamics 4 Counting of microstates 5 See also 6 ReferencesGibbs entropy formula[edit] The macroscopic state of a system is characterized by a distribution on the microstates. The entropy of this distribution is given by the Gibbs entropy formula, named after J. Willard Gibbs [...More...]  "Entropy (statistical Thermodynamics)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Probability Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t e Probability Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.[1] See glossary of probability and statistics. Probability Probability is quantified as a number between 0 and 1, where, loosely speaking,[2] 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty.[3][4] The higher the probability of an event, the more likely it is that the event will occur [...More...]  "Probability" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Physical Systems In physics, a physical system is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis. Everything outside the system is known as the environment. The environment is ignored except for its effects on the system. The split between system and environment is the analyst's choice, generally made to simplify the analysis. For example, the water in a lake, the water in half of a lake, or an individual molecule of water in the lake can each be considered a physical system. An isolated system is one that has negligible interaction with its environment. Often a system in this sense is chosen to correspond to the more usual meaning of system, such as a particular machine. In the study of quantum coherence, the "system" may refer to the microscopic properties of an object (e.g [...More...]  "Physical Systems" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

State (computer Science) In information technology and computer science, a program is described as stateful if it is designed to remember preceding events or user interactions;[1] the remembered information is called the state of the system. The set of states a system can occupy is known as its state space. In a discrete system, the state space is countable and often finite, and the system's internal behaviour or interaction with its environment consists of separately occurring individual actions or events, such as accepting input or producing output, that may or may not cause the system to change its state. Examples of such systems are digital logic circuits and components, automata and formal language, computer programs, and computers [...More...]  "State (computer Science)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Observation Observation Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of scientific instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during the scientific activity [...More...]  "Observation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Property Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing [...More...]  "Property" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Information Processing Information Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Information Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by, Claude E. Shannon Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2011) [...More...]  "Information Processing" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Andrey Kolmogorov Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (Russian: Андре́й Никола́евич Колмого́ров, IPA: [ɐnˈdrʲej nʲɪkɐˈlajɪvʲɪtɕ kəlmɐˈɡorəf] ( listen), 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987)[4][5] was a 20thcentury Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.[3][2][6]Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Adulthood2 Awards and honours 3 Bibliography 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Andrey Kolmogorov Andrey Kolmogorov was born in Tambov, about 500 kilometers southsoutheast of Moscow, in 1903 [...More...]  "Andrey Kolmogorov" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Computer Program A computer program is a structured collection of instruction sequences[1][2] that perform a specific task when executed by a computer. A computer requires programs to function. A computer program is usually written by a computer programmer in a programming language. From the program in its humanreadable form of source code, a compiler can derive machine code—a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute. Alternatively, a computer program may be executed with the aid of an interpreter. The evolution of a process is directed by a pattern of rules called a program. People create programs to direct processes. A formal model of some part of a computer program that performs a general and welldefined task is called an algorithm. A collection of computer programs, libraries, and related data are referred to as software [...More...]  "Computer Program" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

String (computer Science) In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable. The latter may allow its elements to be mutated and the length changed, or it may be fixed (after creation). A string is generally understood as a data type and is often implemented as an array data structure of bytes (or words) that stores a sequence of elements, typically characters, using some character encoding [...More...]  "String (computer Science)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Statistical Mechanics Statistical mechanics Statistical mechanics is a branch of theoretical physics that uses probability theory to study the average behaviour of a mechanical system whose exact state is uncertain.[1][2][3][note 1] Statistical mechanics Statistical mechanics is commonly used to explain the thermodynamic behaviour of large systems. This branch of statistical mechanics, which treats and extends classical thermodynamics, is known as statistical thermodynamics or equilibrium statistical mechanics. Microscopic mechanical laws do not contain concepts such as temperature, heat, or entropy; however, statistical mechanics shows how these concepts arise from the natural uncertainty about the state of a system when that system is prepared in practice [...More...]  "Statistical Mechanics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Semigroup In mathematics, a semigroup is an algebraic structure consisting of a set together with an associative binary operation. The binary operation of a semigroup is most often denoted multiplicatively: x·y, or simply xy, denotes the result of applying the semigroup operation to the ordered pair (x, y). Associativity Associativity is formally expressed as that (x·y)·z = x·(y·z) for all x, y and z in the semigroup. The name "semigroup" originates in the fact that a semigroup generalizes a group by preserving only associativity and closure under the binary operation from the axioms defining a group.[note 1] From the opposite point of view (of adding rather than removing axioms), a semigroup is an associative magma. As in the case of groups or magmas, the semigroup operation need not be commutative, so x·y is not necessarily equal to y·x; a typical example of associative but noncommutative operation is matrix multiplication [...More...]  "Semigroup" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Computer Storage Computer Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers.[1]:15–16 The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy,[1]:468–473 which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU CPU and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage". In the Von Neumann architecture, the CPU CPU consists of two main parts: The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) [...More...]  "Computer Storage" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Quantum State In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system. A quantum state provides a probability distribution for the value of each observable, i.e. for the outcome of each possible measurement on the system. Knowledge of the quantum state together with the rules[clarification needed] for the system's evolution in time exhausts all that can be predicted about the system's behavior. A mixture of quantum states is again a quantum state. Quantum states that cannot be written as a mixture of other states are called pure quantum states, all other states are called mixed quantum states. Mathematically, a pure quantum state can be represented by a ray in a Hilbert space Hilbert space over the complex numbers.[1] The ray is a set of nonzero vectors differing by just a complex scalar factor; any of them can be chosen as a state vector to represent the ray and thus the state [...More...]  "Quantum State" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 