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Comparison Of Radio Systems
Many of the world's radio stations broadcast in a variety of analog and digital formats. This page will list and compare them in chart form.Contents1 Table 2 ReferencesTable[edit]World radio systems (Terrestrial)System Type Modulation Data rate Sidebands? Ch
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Channel (communications)
A communication channel or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking. A channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit stream, from one or several senders (or transmitters) to one or several receivers. A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting information, often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second. Communicating data from one location to another requires some form of pathway or medium. These pathways, called communication channels, use two types of media: cable (twisted-pair wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable) and broadcast (microwave, satellite, radio, and infrared). Cable or wire line media use physical wires of cables to transmit data and information
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QAM
Quadrature amplitude modulation
Quadrature amplitude modulation
(QAM) is both an analog and a digital modulation scheme. It conveys two analog message signals, or two digital bit streams, by changing (modulating) the amplitudes of two carrier waves, using the amplitude-shift keying (ASK) digital modulation scheme or amplitude modulation (AM) analog modulation scheme. The two carrier waves of the same frequency, usually sinusoids, are out of phase with each other by 90° and are thus called quadrature carriers or quadrature components — hence the name of the scheme. The modulated waves are summed, and the final waveform is a combination of both phase-shift keying (PSK) and amplitude-shift keying (ASK), or, in the analog case, of phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation. In the digital QAM case, a finite number of at least two phases and at least two amplitudes are used
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HVXC
Harmonic Vector Excitation Coding, abbreviated as HVXC is a speech coding algorithm specified in MPEG-4 Part 3 (MPEG-4 Audio) standard for very low bit rate speech coding. HVXC supports bit rates of 2 and 4 kbit/s in the fixed and variable bit rate mode and sampling frequency 8 kHz. It also operates at lower bitrates, such as 1.2 - 1.7 kbit/s, using a variable bit rate technique.[1] The total algorithmic delay for the encoder and decoder is 36 ms.[2] It was published as subpart 2 of ISO/IEC 14496-3:1999 (MPEG-4 Audio) in 1999.[3] An extended version of HVXC was published in MPEG-4 Audio Version 2 (ISO/IEC 14496-3:1999/Amd 1:2000).[4][5] MPEG-4 Natural Speech Coding Tool Set uses two algorithms: HVXC and CELP (Code Excited Linear Prediction). HVXC is used at a low bit rate of 2 or 4 kbit/s
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CELP
Code-excited linear prediction (CELP) is a speech coding algorithm originally proposed by M. R. Schroeder and B. S. Atal in 1985. At the time, it provided significantly better quality than existing low bit-rate algorithms, such as residual-excited linear prediction and linear predictive coding vocoders (e.g., FS-1015). Along with its variants, such as algebraic CELP, relaxed CELP, low-delay CELP and vector sum excited linear prediction, it is currently the most widely used speech coding algorithm[citation needed]. It is also used in MPEG-4 Audio speech coding
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MPEG-4
MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. It was introduced in late 1998 and designated a standard for a group of audio and video coding formats and related technology agreed upon by the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group
Moving Picture Experts Group
(MPEG) (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11) under the formal standard ISO/IEC 14496 – Coding of audio-visual objects
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Spectral Band Replication
Spectral band replication (SBR) is a technology to enhance audio or speech codecs, especially at low bit rates and is based on harmonic redundancy in the frequency domain. It can be combined with any audio compression codec: the codec itself transmits the lower and midfrequencies of the spectrum, while SBR replicates higher frequency content by transposing up harmonics from the lower and midfrequencies at the decoder.[1] Some guidance information for reconstruction of the high-frequency spectral envelope is transmitted as side information. When needed, it also reconstructs or adaptively mixes in noise-like information in selected frequency bands in order to faithfully replicate signals that originally contained no or fewer tonal components. The SBR idea is based on the principle that the psychoacoustic part of the human brain tends to
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Bandwidth (signal Processing)
Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies. It is typically measured in hertz, and depending on context, may specifically refer to passband bandwidth or baseband bandwidth. Passband
Passband
bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a band-pass filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum
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Single Channel Simulcast
Single/Multi Channel Simulcast is the simultaneous transmission of an amplitude modulated and Digital Radio Mondiale
Digital Radio Mondiale
(DRM) in the same (SingleChannel Simulcast - SCS) or a neighbouring channel (MultiChannel Simulcast - MCS). To produce this SCS multiplex signal, the initial carrier is modulated by the DRM signal using quadrature phase modulation
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DQPSK
Phase-shift keying
Phase-shift keying
(PSK) is a digital modulation process which conveys data by changing (modulating) the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). The modulation occurs by varying the sine and cosine inputs at a precise time. It is widely used for wireless LANs, RFID and Bluetooth
Bluetooth
communication. Any digital modulation scheme uses a finite number of distinct signals to represent digital data. PSK uses a finite number of phases, each assigned a unique pattern of binary digits. Usually, each phase encodes an equal number of bits. Each pattern of bits forms the symbol that is represented by the particular phase. The demodulator, which is designed specifically for the symbol-set used by the modulator, determines the phase of the received signal and maps it back to the symbol it represents, thus recovering the original data
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HD Radio
HD Radio
HD Radio
is a trademarked term for iBiquity's in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" immediately above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD (digital radio with less noise) or as a standard broadcast (analog radio with standard sound quality). The HD format also provides the means for a single radio station to simultaneously broadcast one or more different programs in addition to the program being transmitted on the radio station's analog channel. It was selected by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission
U.S. Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) in 2002 as a digital audio broadcasting method for the United States,[1][2] and is the only digital system approved by the FCC for digital AM/FM broadcasts in the United States
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Frequency Allocation
Frequency allocation
Frequency allocation
(or spectrum allocation or spectrum management) is the allocation and regulation of the electromagnetic spectrum into radio frequency bands, which is normally done by governments in most countries.[1] Because radio propagation does not stop at national boundaries, governments have sought to harmonise the allocation of RF bands and their standardization.Contents1 ITU definition 2 Bodies 3 Example 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksITU definition[edit] The International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
defines frequency allocation as being of "a given frequency band for the purpose of its use by one or more terrestrial or space radiocommunication services or the radio astronomy service under specified conditions".[2] Frequency allocation
Frequency allocation
is also a special term, used in national frequency administration
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In-band On-channel
In-band on-channel (IBOC) is a hybrid method of transmitting digital radio and analog radio broadcast signals simultaneously on the same frequency. By utilizing additional digital subcarriers or sidebands, digital information is "multiplexed" on an AM or FM analog signal, thus avoiding re-allocation of the broadcast bands. However, by putting RF energy outside of the normally-defined channel, interference to adjacent channel stations is increased when using digital sidebands. The addition of the digital sidebands works better in the United States, where the FM broadcast band channels have a spacing of 200 kHz, as opposed to the 100 kHz that is normal elsewhere. The 200 kHz spacing means that in practice, stations having concurrent or adjacent coverage areas will not be spaced at less than 400 kHz
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KHz
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.[1] It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples: kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones, particularly those used in radio- and audio-related applications
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Motorola
Motorola, Inc. (/ˌmoʊtəˈroʊlə/[4]) was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility
Motorola Mobility
and Motorola Solutions
Motorola Solutions
on January 4, 2011.[5] Motorola Solutions
Motorola Solutions
is generally considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off.[6] Motorola Mobility
Motorola Mobility
was sold to Google
Google
in 2012, and acquired by Lenovo
Lenovo
in 2014.[7] Motorola
Motorola
designed and sold wireless network equipment such as cellular transmission base stations and signal amplifiers
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Digital Subchannel
In broadcasting, digital subchannels are a method of transmitting more than one independent program stream simultaneously from the same digital radio or television station on the same radio frequency channel. This is done by using data compression techniques to reduce the size of each individual program stream, and multiplexing to combine them into a single signal
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