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Communist
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin
Latin
communis, "common, universal")[1][2] is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism
Communism
includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism
Marxism
and anarchism (anarcho-communism), as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society; and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution
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Collectivism
Collectivism
Collectivism
is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self
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Tommaso Campanella
Tommaso Campanella
Tommaso Campanella
OP (Italian: [tomˈmazo kampaˈnɛlla]; 5 September 1568 – 21 May 1639), baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was a Dominican friar, Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet.Contents1 Biography 2 Notes 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Stignano
Stignano
(in the county of Stilo) in the province of Reggio di Calabria
Calabria
in Calabria, southern Italy, Campanella was a child prodigy. Son of a poor and illiterate cobbler, he entered the Dominican Order before the age of fourteen,[1] taking the name of fra' Tommaso in honour of Thomas Aquinas
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Anti-capitalism
Anti-capitalism
Anti-capitalism
encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism
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Communitarianism
Communitarianism
Communitarianism
is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community. Its overriding philosophy is based upon the belief that a person's social identity and personality are largely molded by community relationships, with a smaller degree of development being placed on individualism
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Labour Movement
The labour movement or labor movement[1] consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism[a] on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.The trade union movement consists of the collective organisation of working people developed to represent and campaign for better working conditions and treatment from their employers and, by the implementation of labour and employment laws, from their governments. The standard unit of organisation is the trade union.The political labour movement in many countries includes a political party that represents the interests of employees, often known as a "labour party" or "workers' party"
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Communalism
Communalism usually refers to a system that integrates communal ownership and federations of highly localized independent communities. A prominent libertarian socialist, Murray Bookchin, defines the Communalism political philosophy that he developed as "a theory of government or a system of government in which independent communes participate in a federation", as well as "the principles and practice of communal ownership". The terms 'government' and 'autonomous' in this case do not imply an acceptance of a State, parochialism, or individualism.[1][2] This usage of communalism appears to have emerged during the late 20th century to distinguish commune-based systems from other political movements and/or governments espousing (if not actually practicing) similar ideas
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Wage Slavery
Wage
Wage
slavery is a term used to draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person. It is usually used to refer to a situation where a person's livelihood depends on wages or a salary, especially when the dependence is total and immediate.[1][2] The term "wage slavery" has been used to criticize exploitation of labour and social stratification, with the former seen primarily as unequal bargaining power between labor and capital (particularly when workers are paid comparatively low wages, e.g
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Commune
A commune (the French word appearing in the 12th century from Medieval Latin
Latin
communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin
Latin
communis, things held in common)[1] is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work, income or assets. In addition to the communal economy, consensus decision-making, non-hierarchical structures and ecological living have become important core principles for many communes
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Gift Economy
A gift economy, gift culture, or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards.[1] This contrasts with a barter economy or a market economy, where goods and services are primarily exchanged for value received. Social norms and custom govern gift exchange. Gifts are not given in an explicit exchange of goods or services for money or some other commodity.[2] The nature of gift economies forms the subject of a foundational debate in anthropology. Anthropological research into gift economies began with Bronisław Malinowski's description of the Kula ring[3] in the Trobriand Islands
Trobriand Islands
during World War I.[4] The Kula trade appeared to be gift-like since Trobrianders would travel great distances over dangerous seas to give what were considered valuable objects without any guarantee of a return
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Islamic Communism
Islamic socialism
Islamic socialism
is a term coined by various Muslim
Muslim
leaders to describe a more spiritual form of socialism. Muslim
Muslim
socialists believe that the teachings of the Quran
Quran
and Muhammad—especially the zakat—are compatible with principles of economic and social equality. They draw inspiration from the early Medinan welfare state established by Muhammad. Muslim
Muslim
socialists found their roots in anti-imperialism
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Communism (other)
Communism
Communism
is a political ideology and movement with the ultimate aim of achieving a communist society. Communism
Communism
may also refer to: Communism
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Thomas More
Sir Thomas More
Thomas More
(/mɔːr/; 7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as Saint Thomas More,[1][2] was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist. He was also a councillor to Henry VIII, and Lord High Chancellor of England
England
from October 1529 to 16 May 1532.[3] He wrote Utopia, published in 1516, about the political system of an imaginary, ideal island nation. More opposed the Protestant Reformation, in particular the theology of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and William Tyndale. More also opposed the king's separation from the Catholic Church, refusing to acknowledge Henry as Supreme Head of the Church of England
England
and the annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. After refusing to take the Oath of Supremacy, he was convicted of treason and beheaded
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François-Noël Babeuf
François-Noël Babeuf
François-Noël Babeuf
(French: [babœf]; 23 November 1760 – 27 May 1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf,[2] was a French political agitator and journalist of the French Revolutionary period. His newspaper Le tribun du peuple ("the tribune of the people") was best known for his advocacy for the poor and calling for a popular revolt against the Directory, the government of France. He was a leading advocate for democracy, the abolition of private property and the equality of results. He angered the authorities who were clamping down hard on their radical enemies. In spite of the efforts of his Jacobin
Jacobin
friends to save him, Babeuf was executed for his role in the Conspiracy of the Equals. The "Gracchus" nickname likened him to the ancient Roman tribunes of the people
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Social Revolution
Social revolutions are sudden changes in the structure and nature of society.[1] These revolutions are usually recognized as having transformed in society, culture, philosophy, and technology much more than political systems.[2] Theda Skocpol
Theda Skocpol
in her article "France, Russia, China: A Structural Analysis of Social Revolutions" states that social revolution is a "combination of thoroughgoing structural transformation and massive class upheavals".[3] She comes to this definition by combining Samuel P
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Wilhelm Weitling
Wilhelm Christian Weitling (October 5, 1808 – January 25, 1871) was a German-born tailor, inventor, and radical political activist. Weitling gained fame in Europe as a social theorist before emigrating to the United States. In addition to his extensive political writing, Weitling was a successful inventor of attachments for commercial sewing machines, including devices for double-stitching and the creation of button holes.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early years 1.2 Political activity 1.3 American years2 Works 3 See also 4 Footnotes 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Early years[edit] Wilhelm Christian Weitling was born in Magdeburg, Prussia, the son of Christiane Weitling and Guilliaume Terijon
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