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Communicology
COMMUNICOLOGY is the scholarly and academic study of how we create and use messages to affect our social environment. Communicology
Communicology
is an academic discipline that distinguishes itself from the broader field of human communication with its exclusive use of scientific methods to study communicative phenomena. The goals of these scientific methods are to create and extend theory-based knowledge about the processes and outcomes of communication. Practitioners in the communicology discipline employ empirical and deductive research methods, such as cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys , experiments , meta-analyses , and content analyses , to test theoretically-derived hypotheses. Correlational and causal relationships between communication variables are tested in these studies. Researchers of communicology explore specific functions of communication. Such functions might include interpersonal communication , message processing, and persuasion
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Carl Hovland
CARL IVER HOVLAND (June 12, 1912 – April 16, 1961) was a psychologist working primarily at Yale University and for the US Army during World War II who studied attitude change and persuasion . He first reported the sleeper effect after studying the effects of the Frank Capra 's propaganda film Why We Fight on soldiers in the Army. In later studies on this subject, Hovland collaborated with Irving Janis who would later become famous for his theory of groupthink . Hovland also developed social judgment theory of attitude change. Carl Hovland thought that the ability of someone to resist persuasion by a certain group depended on your degree of belonging to the group. With the advent of government propaganda in support of the United States’ participation in World War II, the artifacts worth investigating helped with increase of persuasive communication with intent to affect behavior, attitude, and values
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Harold Lasswell
HAROLD DWIGHT LASSWELL (February 13, 1902 – December 18, 1978) was a leading American political scientist and communications theorist . He was a PhD student at the University of Chicago , and he was a professor of law at Yale University . He served as president both of the American Political Science Association (APSA) and of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS). According to a biographical memorial written by Gabriel Almond at the time of Lasswell's death and published by the National Academies of Sciences in 1987, Lasswell "ranked among the half dozen creative innovators in the social sciences in the twentieth century." At the time, Almond asserted that "few would question that he was the most original and productive political scientist of his time." Areas of research in which Lasswell worked included the importance of personality , social structure , and culture in the explanation of political phenomena
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Two-step Flow Of Communication
The TWO-STEP FLOW OF COMMUNICATION MODEL says that most people form their opinions under the influence of opinion leaders , who in turn are influenced by the mass media . In contrast to the one-step flow of the hypodermic needle model or magic bullet theory , which holds that people are directly influenced by mass media, according to the two-step flow model, ideas flow from mass media to opinion leaders, and from them to a wider population. CONTENTS * 1 Basic Overview * 2 Concept * 3 About * 3.1 Contemporary debate * 4 Lazarsfeld and Katz * 4.1 Paul Felix Lazarsfeld * 4.2 Elihu Katz * 5 Published Works on the Theory * 5.1 The People’s Choice * 5.2 Personal Influence * 6 Criticisms * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links BASIC OVERVIEWThe theory is based on a 1940s study on social influence that states that media effects are indirectly established through the personal influence of opinion leaders
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Propaganda
PROPAGANDA is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented. Propaganda
Propaganda
is often associated with material prepared by governments, but activist groups and companies can also produce propaganda. In the twentieth century, the term propaganda has been associated with a manipulative approach, but propaganda historically was a neutral descriptive term. A wide range of materials and media are used for conveying propaganda messages, which changed as new technologies were invented, including paintings, cartoons, posters, pamphlets, films, radio shows, TV shows, and websites
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Critical Theory
CRITICAL THEORY is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities . As a term, Critical Theory has two meanings with different origins and histories: the first originated in sociology and the second originated in literary criticism , whereby it is used and applied as an umbrella term that can describe a theory founded upon critique ; thus, the theorist Max Horkheimer described a theory as critical insofar as it seeks "to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them". In sociology and political philosophy , the term Critical Theory describes the neo- Marxist philosophy of the Frankfurt School
Frankfurt School
, which was developed in Germany in the 1930s
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Kurt Lewin
KURT LEWIN (September 9, 1890 – February 12, 1947) was a German -American psychologist , known as one of the modern pioneers of social , organizational , and applied psychology in the United States. Exiled from the land of his birth, Lewin (/ləˈviːn/ lə-VEEN ) made a new life for himself, in which he defined himself and his contributions within three lenses of analysis: applied research, action research , and group communication were his major offerings to the field of communication. Lewin is often recognized as the "founder of social psychology" and was one of the first to study group dynamics and organizational development . A Review of General Psychology
Psychology
survey, published in 2002, ranked Lewin as the 18th-most cited psychologist of the 20th century
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Paul Lazarsfeld
PAUL FELIX LAZARSFELD (February 13, 1901 – August 30, 1976) was an American sociologist . The founder of Columbia University
Columbia University
's Bureau of Applied Social Research , he exerted influence over the techniques and the organization of social research . "It is not so much that he was an American sociologist," one colleague said of him after his death, "as it was that he determined what American sociology would be." Lazarsfeld said that his goal was “to produce Paul Lazarsfelds." The two main accomplishments he is associated with can be analyzed within two lenses of analysis: research institutes, methodology, as well as his research content itself. CONTENTS * 1 Austria * 2 Coming to America * 3 Newark * 4 Columbia * 5 Influence * 6 Criticism * 7 Lazarsfeld\'s work with Robert K. Merton
Robert K

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Public Speaking
PUBLIC SPEAKING (also called ORATORY or ORATION) is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience . This type of speech is deliberately structured with three general purposes: to inform, to persuade and to entertain. Public speaking is commonly understood as formal, face-to-face speaking of a single person to a group of listeners. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Tools * 4 National and organizations * 4.1 Intercollegiate * 4.2 High school * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEWThere are five basic elements of public speaking that are described in Lasswell\'s model of communication : the communicator, message, medium, audience and effect. In short, the speaker should be answering the question "who says what in which channel to whom with what effect?" Public speaking can serve the purpose of transmitting information, telling a story, motivating people to act or some combination of those
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Human Communication
HUMAN COMMUNICATION, or ANTHROPOSEMIOTICS, is the field dedicated to understanding how humans communicate. Human communication is grounded in cooperative and shared intentions. Richmond and McCroskey (2009) state that "the importance of communication in human society has been recognized for thousands of years, far longer than we can demonstrate through recorded history ". :223 Humans have communication abilities that other animals do not. Being able to communicate aspects like time and place as though they were solid objects are a few examples. It is said that humans communicate to request help, to inform others, and to share attitudes as a way of bonding. CONTENTS * 1 Category * 2 Types * 3 Important figures * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading CATEGORYThe current study of human communication can be branched off into two major categories; rhetorical and relational
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World War I
Allied victory * Central Powers ' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front * Fall of the German , Russian , Ottoman , and Austro-Hungarian empires * Russian Civil War and foundation of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East * Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers * Establishment of the League of Nations
League of Nations
. (more..
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
* Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIED POWERS AXIS POWERS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Franklin D
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Qualitative Research
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, including in the social sciences and natural sciences , but also in non-academic contexts including market research , business, and service demonstrations by non-profits
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Quantitative Research
In natural sciences and social sciences , QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models , theories and hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Quantitative data is any data that is in numerical form such as statistics, percentages, etc. The researcher analyzes the data with the help of statistics . The researcher is hoping the numbers will yield an unbiased result that can be generalized to some larger population. Qualitative research
Qualitative research
, on the other hand, asks broad questions and collects word data from phenomena or participants
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Credibility
CREDIBILITY comprises the objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. Credibility has two key components: trustworthiness and expertise, which both have objective and subjective components. Trustworthiness is based more on subjective factors, but can include objective measurements such as established reliability. Expertise can be similarly subjectively perceived, but also includes relatively objective characteristics of the source or message (e.g., credentials, certification or information quality). Secondary components of credibility include source dynamism (charisma) and physical attractiveness. Credibility online has become an important topic since the mid-1990s. This is because the web has increasingly become an information resource
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Attitude (psychology)
In psychology , an ATTITUDE is a psychological construct, it is a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person. They are complex and an acquired state through experiences. It is an individual's predisposed state of mind regarding a value and it is precipitated through a responsive expression toward a person, place, thing, or event (the ATTITUDE OBJECT) which in turn influences the individual's thought and action. Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport once described attitudes as "the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology ." Attitude can be formed from a person's past and present. Key topics in the study of attitudes include attitude measurement, attitude change , consumer behavior , and attitude-behavior relationships
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