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Communications Satellite
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. There are over 2,000 communications satellites in Earth’s orbit, used by both private and government organizations.[1] Wireless communication uses electromagnetic waves to carry signals. These waves require line-of-sight, and are thus obstructed by the curvature of the Earth
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Orbital Altitude
Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit. In celestial mechanics these elements are generally considered in classical two-body systems, where a Kepler orbit is used. There are many different ways to mathematically describe the same orbit, but certain schemes, each consisting of a set of six parameters, are commonly used in astronomy and orbital mechanics. A real orbit (and its elements) changes over time due to gravitational perturbations by other objects and the effects of relativity. A Keplerian orbit is merely an idealized, mathematical approximation at a particular time.Contents1 Keplerian elements1.1 Required parameters 1.2 Alternative parametrizations1.2.1 Euler angle transformations2 Orbit prediction 3 Perturbations and elemental variance 4 Two-line elements 5 Delaunay variables 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksKeplerian elements[edit]In this diagram, the orbital plane (yellow) intersects a reference plane (gray)
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Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
(/ˈspʊtnɪk/ or /ˈspʌtnɪk/; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite
Satellite
1")[5] was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennas to broadcast radio pulses. Its radio signal was easily detectable even by radio amateurs,[6] and the 65° inclination and duration of its orbit made its flight path cover virtually the entire inhabited Earth. This surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis
Sputnik crisis
and triggered the Space Race, a part of the Cold War
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List Of Orbits
The following is a list of types of orbits:Contents1 Centric classifications 2 Altitude
Altitude
classifications for geocentric orbits 3 Inclination
Inclination
classifications 4 Eccentricity classifications 5 Synchronicity classifications 6 Orbits in galaxies or galaxy models 7 Special
Special
classifications 8 Pseudo-orbit classifications 9 See also 10 ReferencesCentric classifications[edit]Galactocentric orbit[citation needed]: An orbit about the center of a galaxy. The Sun
Sun
follows this type of orbit about the galactic center of the Milky Way. Heliocentric orbit: An orbit around the Sun. In the Solar System, all planets, comets, and asteroids are in such orbits, as are many artificial satellites and pieces of space debris
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NASA Deep Space Network
The NASA
NASA
Deep Space Network
Space Network
(DSN) is a worldwide network of US spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States (California), Spain (Madrid), and Australia (Canberra), that supports NASA's interplanetary spacecraft missions. It also performs radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe, and supports selected Earth-orbiting missions. DSN is part of the NASA
NASA
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
(JPL)
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Mars Exploration Rover
NASA's Mars
Mars
Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars
Mars
rovers, Spirit[1] and Opportunity,[2] exploring the planet Mars. It began in 2003 with the launch of the two rovers: MER-A Spirit and MER-B
MER-B
Opportunity—to explore the Martian surface and geology; both landed on Mars
Mars
at separate locations in January 2004
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Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
in the north to the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
(or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
in the west and the Americas
Americas
in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic
Antarctic
southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined.[1] Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
are in the Pacific Ocean
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Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a cape in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast. Known as Cape Kennedy from 1963 to 1973, it lies east of Merritt Island, separated from it by the Banana River. It was discovered by the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León
Juan Ponce de León
in 1513. It is part of a region known as the Space Coast, and is the site of the Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral
Air Force Station. Since many U.S. spacecraft have been launched from both the station and the Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
on adjacent Merritt Island, the two are sometimes conflated with each other
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General Post Office (United Kingdom)
The General Post Office
General Post Office
(GPO)[1] was officially established in England in 1660[2] by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of state postal system and telecommunications carrier. Similar General Post Offices were established across the British Empire. In 1969 the GPO was abolished and the assets transferred to The Post Office, changing it from a Department of State to a statutory corporation. In 1980, the telecommunications and postal sides were split prior to the British Telecommunications' split into a totally separate publicly owned corporation the following year as a result of the British Telecommunications
Telecommunications
Act 1981
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Free-space Path Loss
In telecommunication, free-space path loss (FSPL) is the attenuation of radio energy between the feedpoints of two antennas that results from the combination of the receiving antenna's capture area plus the obstacle free, line-of-sight path through free space (usually air).[1] The "Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas", IEEE Std 145-1993, defines "free-space loss" as "The loss between two isotropic radiators in free space, expressed as a power ratio."[2] Despite this name and definition, the FSPL includes a receiving antenna aperture component in the total attenuation.[1] It does not include any loss associated with hardware imperfections, or the effects of any antenna gains
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Reflector (antenna)
An antenna reflector is a device that reflects electromagnetic waves. Antenna reflectors can exist as a standalone device for redirecting radio frequency (RF) energy, or can be integrated as part of an antenna assembly.Contents1 Standalone reflectors 2 Integrated reflectors 3 Design criteria 4 Measurements 5 ReferencesStandalone reflectors[edit]Types of parabolic antennas Corner reflector
Corner reflector
part of a UHF television antennaThe function of a standalone reflector is to redirect electro-magnetic (EM) energy, generally in the radio wavelength range of the electromagnetic spectr
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Balloon Satellite
A balloon satellite (also occasionally referred to as a "satelloon", which is a trademarked name owned by Gilmore Schjeldahl's G.T. Schjeldahl Company) is a satellite that is inflated with gas after it has been put into orbit.Contents1 List of Balloon Satellites 2 Echo 1
Echo 1
and Echo 2 balloon satellites 3 Range of radio waves, visibility 4 Other balloon satellites4.1 Pageos
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Philco
Philco
Philco
(founded as Helios Electric Company, renamed Philadelphia Storage Battery Company) was a pioneer in battery, radio, and television production. In North America, it is the Philco
Philco
brand owned by Philips. In other markets, it is the Philco
Philco
International brand owned by Electrolux. In the early 1920s, Philco
Philco
made storage batteries, "socket power" battery eliminator units, and battery chargers. With the invention of the rectifier tube, which made it practical to power radios by electrical outlets, in 1928, Philco
Philco
decided to get into the booming radio business.[1] They followed other radio makers such as Atwater-Kent, Zenith Electronics, RCA, Freshman Masterpiece, FADA Radio, and AH Grebe into the battery-powered radio business
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Store And Forward
Store and forward
Store and forward
is a telecommunications technique in which information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station. The intermediate station, or node in a networking context, verifies the integrity of the message before forwarding it. In general, this technique is used in networks with intermittent connectivity, especially in the wilderness or environments requiring high mobility. It may also be preferable in situations when there are long delays in transmission and variable and high error rates, or if a direct, end-to-end connection is not available.Contents1 Modern store and forward networking 2 Manually operated relay 3 Automatic relay 4 Email 5 UUCP 6 FidoNet 7 See also 8 ReferencesModern store and forward networking[edit] Store and forward
Store and forward
originates the delay-tolerant networks
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Passive Repeater
A passive repeater or passive radio link deflection, is a reflective or sometimes refractive panel or other object that assists in closing a radio or microwave link, in places where an obstacle in the signal path blocks any direct, line of sight communication. Compared to a microwave radio relay station with active components, a passive repeater is far simpler and needs little maintenance and no on-site electric power. It also does not require additional frequencies, unlike active repeater stations which use different transmit and receive frequencies to prevent feedback. The corresponding disadvantage is that without amplification the returned signal is significantly weaker. Passive radio relay link deflection systems in the vertical level can be realized by receiving the signal with a parabolic antenna and leading it through a waveguide to a second parabolic antenna, where it is radiated
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PET Film (biaxially Oriented)
BoPET
BoPET
(Biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate) is a polyester film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, reflectivity, gas and aroma barrier properties, and electrical insulation. A variety of companies manufacture boPET and other polyester films under different brand names
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