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Communications Satellite
A COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder ; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. There are over 2,000 communications satellites in Earth’s orbit, used by both private and government organizations. Wireless communication uses electromagnetic waves to carry signals. These waves require line-of-sight, and are thus obstructed by the curvature of the Earth. The purpose of communications satellites is to relay the signal around the curve of the Earth allowing communication between widely separated points. Communications satellites use a wide range of radio and microwave frequencies
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Balloon Satellite
A BALLOON SATELLITE (also occasionally referred to as a "satelloon", which is a trademarked name owned by Gilmore Schjeldahl 's G.T. Schjeldahl Company) is a satellite that is inflated with gas after it has been put into orbit
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Reflector (antenna)
An antenna REFLECTOR is a device that reflects electromagnetic waves . Antenna reflectors can exist as a standalone device for redirecting radio frequency (RF) energy, or can be integrated as part of an antenna assembly. CONTENTS * 1 Standalone reflectors * 2 Integrated reflectors * 3 Design criteria * 4 Measurements * 5 References STANDALONE REFLECTORS Types of parabolic antennas Corner reflector
Corner reflector
part of a UHF television antenna The function of a standalone reflector is to redirect electro-magnetic (EM) energy, generally in the radio wavelength range of the electromagnetic spectrum
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General Post Office (United Kingdom)
The GENERAL POST OFFICE (GPO) was officially established in England in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of state postal system and telecommunications carrier. Similar General Post Offices were established across the British Empire . In 1969 the GPO was abolished and the assets transferred to The Post Office, changing it from a Department of State to a statutory corporation . In 1980 the telecommunications and postal sides were split prior to the splitting off of British Telecommunications into a totally separate publicly owned corporation the following year as a result of the British Telecommunications Act 1981. For the more recent history of the postal system in the United Kingdom, see the article Royal Mail and Post Office Ltd . Originally, the GPO was a monopoly covering the despatch of items from a specific sender to a specific receiver, which was to be of great importance when new forms of communication were invented
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Philco
PHILCO, (founded as HELIOS ELECTRIC COMPANY, renamed PHILADELPHIA STORAGE BATTERY COMPANY), was a pioneer in battery, radio, and television production. In North America, it is the Philco
Philco
brand owned by Philips
Philips
. In other markets, it is the Philco
Philco
International brand owned by Electrolux
Electrolux
. In the early 1920s, Philco
Philco
made storage batteries, "socket power" battery eliminator units, and battery chargers. With the invention of the rectifier tube, which made it practical to power radios by electrical outlets, in 1928, Philco
Philco
decided to get into the booming radio business
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES * Presidency -------------------------FIRST TERM * Draft movement * 1952 Campaign * Election * 1st Inauguration * Korean War
Korean War
* Atoms for Peace * Cold War
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Passive Repeater
A PASSIVE REPEATER or PASSIVE RADIO LINK DEFLECTION, is a reflective or sometimes refractive panel or other object that assists in closing a radio or microwave link , in places where an obstacle in the signal path blocks any direct, line of sight communication. Compared to a microwave radio relay station with active components, a passive repeater is far simpler and needs little maintenance and no on-site electric power. It also does not require additional frequencies, unlike active repeater stations which use different transmit and receive frequencies to prevent feedback. The corresponding disadvantage is that without amplification the returned signal is significantly weaker. Passive radio relay link deflection systems in the vertical level can be realized by receiving the signal with a parabolic antenna and leading it through a waveguide to a second parabolic antenna, where it is radiated
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Store And Forward
STORE AND FORWARD is a telecommunications technique in which information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station. The intermediate station, or node in a networking context, verifies the integrity of the message before forwarding it. In general, this technique is used in networks with intermittent connectivity, especially in the wilderness or environments requiring high mobility. It may also be preferable in situations when there are long delays in transmission and variable and high error rates, or if a direct, end-to-end connection is not available
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Cape Canaveral
CAPE CANAVERAL, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a cape in Brevard County, Florida
Florida
, United States
United States
, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast. Known as CAPE KENNEDY from 1963 to 1973, it lies east of Merritt Island
Merritt Island
, separated from it by the Banana River . It was discovered by the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León in 1513. It is part of a region known as the Space Coast , and is the site of the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
. Since many U.S. spacecraft have been launched from both the station and the Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
on adjacent Merritt Island
Merritt Island
, the two are sometimes conflated with each other
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Pacific Ocean
The PACIFIC OCEAN is the largest and deepest of Earth
Earth
's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica
Antarctica
) in the south and is bounded by Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
in the west and the Americas
Americas
in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic
Antarctic
southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean —and, in turn, the hydrosphere —covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined
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Low Earth Orbit
A LOW EARTH ORBIT (LEO) is an orbit around Earth
Earth
with an altitude between the Earth's surface and 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi), with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes. Objects below approximately 160 kilometers (99 mi) will experience very rapid orbital decay and altitude loss. With the exception of the 24 astronauts who flew lunar flights in the Apollo program
Apollo program
during the four-year period spanning 1968 through 1972, all human spaceflights have taken place in LEO or below. The International Space Station
International Space Station
conducts operations in LEO. The altitude record for a human spaceflight in LEO was Gemini 11 with an apogee of 1,374.1 kilometers (853.8 mi). All crewed space stations to date, as well as the majority of satellites , have been in LEO
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Signal Strength
In telecommunications , particularly in radio frequency , SIGNAL STRENGTH (also referred to as FIELD STRENGTH) refers to the transmitter power output as received by a reference antenna at a distance from the transmitting antenna. High-powered transmissions, such as those used in broadcasting , are expressed in dB -millivolts per metre (dBmV/m). For very low-power systems, such as mobile phones , signal strength is usually expressed in dB -microvolts per metre (dBµV/m) or in decibels above a reference level of one milliwatt (dBm ). In broadcasting terminology, 1 mV/m is 1000 µV/m or 60 dBµ (often written dBu)
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Satellite Constellation
A SATELLITE CONSTELLATION is a group of artificial satellites working in concert. Such a constellation can be considered to be a number of satellites with coordinated ground coverage, operating together under shared control, synchronized so that they overlap well in coverage , the period in which a satellite or other spacecraft is visible above the local horizon. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Walker Constellation * 3 See also * 3.1 Example satellite constellations * 3.1.1 Types * 3.1.2 In use * 3.1.3 Proposals * 3.1.4 Defunct * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEWLow Earth orbiting satellites (LEOs) are often deployed in satellite constellations, because the coverage area provided by a single LEO satellite only covers a small area that moves as the satellite travels at the high angular velocity needed to maintain its orbit
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Orbital Altitude
ORBITAL ELEMENTS are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit . In celestial mechanics these elements are generally considered in classical two-body systems , where a Kepler orbit is used. There are many different ways to mathematically describe the same orbit, but certain schemes, each consisting of a set of six parameters, are commonly used in astronomy and orbital mechanics . A real orbit (and its elements) changes over time due to gravitational perturbations by other objects and the effects of relativity . A Keplerian orbit is merely an idealized, mathematical approximation at a particular time
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List Of Orbits
The following is a list of types of orbits : CONTENTS * 1 Centric classifications * 2 Altitude
Altitude
classifications for geocentric orbits * 3 Inclination
Inclination
classifications * 4 Eccentricity classifications * 5 Synchronicity classifications * 6 Orbits in galaxies or galaxy models * 7 Special
Special
classifications * 8 Pseudo-orbit classifications * 9 See also * 10 References CENTRIC CLASSIFICATIONS * Galactocentric orbit : An orbit about the center of a galaxy . The Sun
Sun
follows this type of orbit about the galactic center of the Milky Way . * Heliocentric orbit : An orbit around the Sun
Sun
. In the Solar System , all planets , comets , and asteroids are in such orbits, as are many artificial satellites and pieces of space debris
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Mars Exploration Rover
NASA
NASA
's MARS EXPLORATION ROVER (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars
Mars
rovers , SPIRIT and OPPORTUNITY, exploring the planet Mars
Mars
. It began in 2003 with the sending of the two rovers : MER-A Spirit and MER-B Opportunity —to explore the Martian surface and geology . Both rovers outlived their planned missions of 90 Martian
Martian
solar days by far. MER-A Spirit was active until 2010. MER-B Opportunity is still active
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