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Communards' Wall
The Communards’ Wall (Mur des Fédérés) at the Père Lachaise cemetery is where, on May 28, 1871, one-hundred and forty-seven fédérés, combatants of the Paris Commune, were shot and thrown in an open trench at the foot of the wall.[1] To the French left, especially socialists and communists, the wall became the symbol of the people's struggle for their liberty and ideals. Many leaders of the French Communist Party, especially those involved in the French Resistance, are buried nearby. The Père Lachaise cemetery
Père Lachaise cemetery
was established in May 1804 on a land owned by the Jesuits for centuries, and where Père ("Father") Lachaise, confessor of Louis XIV, lived the latter part of his life. Cemetery of the aristocracy in the 19th century, it also received the remains of famous people from previous eras. During the spring of 1871 the last of the combatants of the Commune entrenched themselves in the cemetery
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Jean Jaurès
Jean Jaurès
Jean Jaurès
(French: [ʒɑ̃ ʒɔ.ʁɛːs]; full name Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès; 3 September 1859 – 31 July 1914) was a French Socialist leader. Initially an Opportunist Republican, he evolved into one of the first social democrats, becoming the leader, in 1902, of the French Socialist Party, which opposed Jules Guesde's revolutionary Socialist Party of France. The two parties merged in 1905 in the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO)
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Labour Movement
The labour movement or labor movement[1] consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism[a] on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.The trade union movement consists of the collective organisation of working people developed to represent and campaign for better working conditions and treatment from their employers and, by the implementation of labour and employment laws, from their governments. The standard unit of organisation is the trade union.The political labour movement in many countries includes a political party that represents the interests of employees, often known as a "labour party" or "workers' party"
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Maurice Thorez
Maurice
Maurice
may refer to:Contents1 Arts and entertainment 2 Places 3 People3.1 Surname4 Other 5 See alsoArts and entertainment[edit] Maurice
Maurice
(novel), a 1913 novel by British author E. M
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Léon Blum
André Léon Blum
Léon Blum
[ɑ̃dʁe leɔ̃ blum] (pronounced bloom)[1] (9 April 1872 – 30 March 1950) was a French politician, identified with the moderate left, and three times Prime Minister of France. As a Jew, he was heavily influenced by the Dreyfus affair
Dreyfus affair
of the late 19th century. He was a disciple of French Socialist leader Jean Jaurès and after 1914 became his successor. Blum rejected the class conflict model of Marxist socialism, instead defining socialism as the highest use of the power of the state, under the guidance of well-educated experts like himself, "to define, protect, and guarantee the condition of the working class."[2] As Prime Minister in a "Popular Front" government of the left 1936-37, he provided a series of major economic reforms. Blum declared neutrality in the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) to avoid the civil conflict spilling over into France
France
itself
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Anarchist
Anarchism
Anarchism
is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions
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Syndicalist
Syndicalism
Syndicalism
is a proposed type of economic system, considered a replacement for capitalism. It suggests that workers, industries, and organisations be systematized into confederations or syndicates. It is "...a system of economic organization in which industries are owned and managed by the workers."[1] Its theory and practice is the advocacy of multiple cooperative productive units composed of specialists and representatives of workers in each field to negotiate and manage the economy. For adherents, labour unions and labour training (see below) are the potential means of both overcoming economic aristocracy and running society in the interest of informed and skilled majorities, through union democracy. Industry in a syndicalist system would be run through co-operative confederations and mutual aid
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Socialist
Socialism
Socialism
is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production[10] as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.[11] Social ownership
Social ownership
may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity.[12] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them,[13] though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms.[5][14][15] Socialist
Socialist
economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms.[16] Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money, with engineering and technical criteria, based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism
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Jean Allemane
Jean Allemane (1843, Sauveterre-de-Comminges, Haute-Garonne – 1935, Herblay in Seine-et-Oise) was a French socialist politician, veteran of the Paris Commune of 1871, pioneer of syndicalism, leader of the Socialist-Revolutionary Workers' Party (POSR) and co-founder of the unified French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) in 1905. He was a deputy in the National Assembly of the Third French Republic.Contents1 Early life: labour activist and Communard 2 Socialist partisan politics: POF, FTSF, POSR 3 Unification of French socialism 4 War and the appeal of radicalism of the left and right 5 Notes 6 Sources, references and linksEarly life: labour activist and Communard[edit] Jean Allemane was born into a working-class family in Sauveterre-de-Comminges (Haute-Garonne) in southern France. In 1853 he came to Paris with his parents and was apprenticed as a printer
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Édouard Vaillant
Marie Édouard Vaillant (26 January 1840 – 18 December 1915) was a French politician. Born in Vierzon, Cher, son of a lawyer, Édouard Vaillant studied engineering at the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, graduating in 1862, and then law at the Sorbonne. In Paris he knew Charles Longuet, Louis-Auguste Rogeard, and Jules Vallès. A reader of Joseph Proudhon writings, he met Proudhon, and joined the International Workingmen's Association. He went to study in Germany in 1866. At the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 he returned to Paris. It was during the Siege of Paris that Vaillant met Auguste Blanqui. Vaillant opposed the Government of National Defence, and took part in the revolts on 31 October 1870 and 22 January 1871. He was one of the four editors of the Affiche Rouge (red poster) calling for the creation of the Paris Commune. In the elections of February 1871 he stood as a revolutionary socialist candidate for the National Assembly but was not elected
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Jules Guesde
Jules Bazile, known as Jules Guesde
Jules Guesde
(French: [ʒyl ɡɛd]; 11 November 1845 – 28 July 1922) was a French socialist journalist and politician. Guesde was the inspiration for a famous quotation by Karl Marx. Shortly before Marx died in 1883, he wrote a letter to Guesde and Paul Lafargue, both of whom already claimed to represent "Marxist" principles. Marx accused them of "revolutionary phrase-mongering".[2] This exchange is the source of Marx's remark, reported by Friedrich Engels: "ce qu'il y a de certain c'est que moi, je ne suis pas marxiste” (“what is certain is that [if they are Marxists], [then] I myself am not a Marxist”).Contents1 Biography1.1 Early years 1.2 Leader of the intransigents 1.3 Later life 1.4 Death and legacy2 Footnotes 3 Sources 4 Further reading 5 External linksBiography[edit] Early years[edit] Jules Bazile Guesde was born in Paris, on the Ile-St-Louis
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New Caledonia
Coordinates: 21°15′S 165°18′E / 21.25°S 165.30°E / -21.25; 165.30New Caledonia Nouvelle-Calédonie (French)Flags of New CaledoniaMotto: "Terre de parole, terre de partage"[1] "Land of speech, land of sharing"Anthem: Soyons unis, devenons frères[1]EmblemStatus Sui generis
Sui generis
special collectivityCapital and largest city Nouméa 22°16′S 166°28′E / 22.267°S 166.467°E / -22.267; 166.467Official languages FrenchRecognised regional languagesDrehu Nengone Paicî Ajië Xârâcùùand 35 other native language
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Deportation
Deportation
Deportation
is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country
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Louis XIV Of France
Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the God-Given (Louis Dieudonné), Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France
King of France
from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting at the age of 4, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history.[1][2] In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power.[3] Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.[4] An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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