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Commonwealth Labour Party
The COMMONWEALTH LABOUR PARTY (CWLP) was a minor political party in Northern Ireland . The party was founded in 1942 by Harry Midgley , former leader of the Northern Ireland Labour Party (NILP), in order to pursue his brand of labour unionism . CONTENTS * 1 Split with the Northern Ireland Labour Party * 2 Organisation * 3 Electoral Performance * 4 Disbanding * 5 References SPLIT WITH THE NORTHERN IRELAND LABOUR PARTYMidgley had adopted a position of unswerving loyalty to Britain during World War II
World War II
, and was increasingly out-of-step with the majority in the NILP, who wished it to remain neutral on the constitutional question, and the nationalist minority in the party, which included his two parliamentary colleagues, Paddy Agnew and Jack Beattie
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Milton Gordon
MILTON MYRON GORDON (born October 3, 1918) is an American sociologist . He is most noted for having devised a theory on the Seven Stages of Assimilation . He was born in Gardiner, Maine . * Acculturation : newcomers adopt language, dress, and daily customs of the host society (including values and norms). * Structural assimilation: large-scale entrance of minorities into cliques, clubs and institutions in the host society. * Marital assimilation: widespread intermarriage . * Identification assimilation: the minority feels bonded to the dominant culture. * Attitude reception assimilation refers to the absence of prejudice . * Behavior reception assimilation refers to the absence of discrimination. * Civic assimilation occurs when there is an absence of values and power struggles.BIBLIOGRAPHY * Milton M. Gordon, ed. (1981). America as a multicultural society. Philadelphia : American Academy of Political and Social Science
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Trade Union
A TRADE UNION or TRADES UNION, also called a LABOUR UNION (Canada ) or LABOR UNION (US ), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, achieving higher pay and benefits such as health care and retirement, increasing the number of employees an employer assigns to complete the work, and better working conditions . The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining ) with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment ". This may include the negotiation of wages , work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies
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Basil Brooke, 1st Viscount Brookeborough
BASIL STANLAKE BROOKE, 1ST VISCOUNT BROOKEBOROUGH KG CBE TD PC (Ire) (9 June 1888 – 18 August 1973), styled as SIR BASIL BROOKE, 5TH BARONET from 1907–52, was an Ulster Unionist Party
Ulster Unionist Party
(UUP) politician who became the third Prime Minister of Northern Ireland
Prime Minister of Northern Ireland
in May 1943, holding office until March 1963. Lord Brookeborough
Brookeborough
had previously held several ministerial positions in the Government of Northern Ireland , and has been described as "perhaps the last Unionist leader to command respect, loyalty and affection across the social and political spectrum of the movement". He has also been described as one of the most hardline anti-Catholic leaders of the UUP
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Labour Party (UK)
The LABOUR PARTY is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom . It has been described as a broad church , bringing together an alliance of social-democratic , socialist and trade-unionist outlooks. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights. Labour is a full member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance , and holds observer status in the Socialist International . The Labour Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the nineteenth century. It overtook the Liberal Party to become the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald
Ramsay MacDonald
in 1924 and from 1929 to 1931
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Ulster Unionist Party
The ULSTER UNIONIST PARTY (UUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
. Having gathered support in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the party governed Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
between 1921 and 1972. It was supported by most unionist voters throughout the conflict known as the Troubles , during which time it was often referred to as the OFFICIAL UNIONIST PARTY (OUP). Between 1905 and 1972 its MPs took the Conservative whip at Westminster. It is currently the fourth party in Northern Ireland, having been overtaken in 2003 by the Democratic Unionist Party
Democratic Unionist Party
and Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
and in 2017 by the SDLP . At the 2015 general election , the party won two seats in the House of Commons , Fermanagh and South Tyrone and South Antrim
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Londonderry (UK Parliament Constituency)
LONDONDERRY was a Parliamentary Constituency
Parliamentary Constituency
in the House of Commons and also a constituency in elections to various regional bodies. It was replaced in boundary changes in 1983. It returned two MPs 1801–1885 and one 1922–1983. CONTENTS * 1 Boundaries * 2 Members of Parliament * 2.1 1801–1885 * 2.2 1922–1983 * 2.3 Notes * 3 Westminster elections * 3.1 Elections in the 1970s * 3.2 Elections in the 1960s * 3.3 Elections in the 1950s * 3.4 Elections in the 1940s * 3.5 Elections in the 1930s * 3.6 Elections in the 1920s * 3.7 Elections in the 1880s * 4 Politics and history of the constituency * 5 References BOUNDARIESThe constituency consisted, in 1801–1885, of the whole of County Londonderry , except for the Parliamentary boroughs of Coleraine and Londonderry City . The seat was re-created in 1922
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North Belfast (Northern Ireland Parliament Constituency)
BELFAST NORTH was a borough constituency of the Parliament of Northern Ireland from 1921 - 1929. It returned four MPs, using the single transferable vote method of proportional representation . CONTENTS * 1 Boundaries * 2 Politics * 3 Members of Parliament * 4 Election results * 5 References * 6 External links BOUNDARIESBelfast North contained the Clifton, Duncairn and Shankill wards of the County Borough of Belfast . In 1929, the constituency was divided into the Belfast Clifton , Belfast Duncairn , Belfast Oldpark and Belfast Shankill constituencies
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Common Wealth Party
The COMMON WEALTH PARTY (CW) was a socialist political party in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the Second World War . Thereafter, it continued in being, essentially as a pressure group, until 1993. CONTENTS * 1 The war years * 2 Postwar development * 3 Later platform * 4 Members of Parliament * 5 Bibliography * 5.1 Forward March books * 5.2 Nine Point Group * 5.3 Common Wealth * 5.3.1 Pamphlets – First series 1943 * 5.3.2 Magazines and Journals * 6 Archives * 6.1 Large Library collections * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links THE WAR YEARSCOMMON WEALTH was founded in July 1942, during World War II
World War II
, by the alliance of two left wing groups, the 1941 Committee – a think tank brought together by Picture Post owner Edward G. Hulton , and their 'star' writers J.B
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British Commonwealth
The COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS (formerly the BRITISH COMMONWEALTH), also known as simply THE COMMONWEALTH, is an intergovernmental organisation of 52 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire . The Commonwealth operates by intergovernmental consensus of the member states, organised through the Commonwealth Secretariat and non-governmental organisations , organised through the Commonwealth Foundation . The Commonwealth dates back to the mid-20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which established the member states as "free and equal". The titular symbol of this free association is Queen Elizabeth II who is the Head of the Commonwealth , but this role does not carry any power with it
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Ballymena (borough)
BALLYMENA is a former local government district with borough status in Northern Ireland . It was one of twenty-six districts created on 1 October 1973 and covered the town of Ballymena and the surrounding area which includes small towns including Broughshane , Cullybackey , Galgorm, Ahoghill and Portglenone . The borough has an area of 200 square miles (520 km2) and a population of 64,044 according to the 2011 census. The borough had a central location within Northern Ireland and is served by the M2 motorway and with a station on the Belfast-Derry/Londonderry railway line . Belfast International Airport itself is only 18 miles (29 km) away and the Belfast City Airport is 30 miles (48 km) from Ballymena. It was also accessible to the seaports of Larne and Belfast, 20 and 27 miles (43 km) away respectively. As of 2015 it has been replaced by Mid and East Antrim Borough Council
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Orange Order
The LOYAL ORANGE INSTITUTION, more commonly known as the ORANGE ORDER, is a Protestant
Protestant
fraternal organisation based primarily in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
. It also has a significant presence in the Scottish Lowlands and lodges throughout the Commonwealth , as well as in the United States
United States
and Togo
Togo
. The Orange Order
Orange Order
was founded in County Armagh in 1795, during a period of Protestant–Catholic sectarian conflict , as a Masonic -style brotherhood sworn to maintain the Protestant
Protestant
Ascendancy . It is headed by the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland , which was established in 1798. Its name is a tribute to the Dutch-born Protestant
Protestant
king William of Orange , who defeated the army of Catholic king James II in the Williamite–Jacobite War (1688–1691)
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Ulster Loyalism
ULSTER LOYALISM is a political ideology found primarily among working class Ulster Protestants in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, whose status as a part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has remained controversial. Most Ulster Protestants are descendants of settlers from Great Britain
Great Britain
in the 17th and 18th centuries. Like unionists , loyalists are attached to the British monarchy , support the continued existence of Northern Ireland, and oppose a united Ireland
Ireland
. Ulster
Ulster
loyalism has been described as a kind of ethnic nationalism and "a variation of British nationalism ". It is strongly associated with paramilitarism . Ulster
Ulster
loyalism emerged in the late 19th century, as a response to the Irish Home Rule movement , and the rise of Catholic Irish nationalism
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Richhill, County Armagh
RICHHILL is a large village and townland in County Armagh , Northern Ireland , roughly halfway between Armagh and Portadown . It had a population of 2,821 people in the 2011 Census. Originally named Legacorry (from Irish : Log a' Choire ), it takes its name from Edward Richardson, who built the manor house that the village grew up around. Richhill has won a string of "Best Kept village" awards. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Village regeneration * 3 Transport * 4 Sport * 5 Churches * 6 Education * 7 Notable people * 8 Demography * 8.1 2011 Census * 8.2 2001 census * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links ORIGINSAt the beginning of the 1600s, the area of Richhill had long been part of the Irish Gaelic territory of Oneilland . In 1610, as part of the Plantation of Ulster , the land was granted to Englishman Francis Sacherevall
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Decolonialisation
DECOLONIZATION (US ) or DECOLONISATION (UK alternative ) is the undoing of colonialism : where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories. The term refers particularly to the dismantlement, in the years after World War II , of the colonial empires established prior to World War I throughout the world. However, decolonization not only refers to the complete "removal of the domination of non-indigenous forces" within the geographical space and different institutions of the colonized, but it also refers to the "decolonizing of the mind" from the colonizers' ideas that made the colonized feel inferior. The United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization has stated that in the process of decolonization there is no alternative to the colonizer allowing a process of self-determination , but in practice decolonization may involve either nonviolent revolution or national liberation wars by pro-independence groups
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