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Commerce Clause
The Commerce
Commerce
Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3). The clause states that the United States Congress
United States Congress
shall have power "To regulate Commerce
Commerce
with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes." Courts and commentators have tended to discuss each of these three areas of commerce as a separate power granted to Congress.[1] It is common to see the individual components of the Commerce
Commerce
Clause referred to under specific terms: the Foreign Commerce Clause, the Interstate Commerce
Commerce
Clause,[2] and the Indian Commerce Clause. Dispute exists within the courts as to the range of powers granted to Congress by the Commerce
Commerce
Clause
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Living Constitution
In United States constitutional interpretation, the living Constitution (or loose constructionism) is the claim that the Constitution has a dynamic meaning or that it has the properties of an animate being in the sense that it changes. The idea is associated with views that contemporaneous society should be taken into account when interpreting key constitutional phrases.[1] While the arguments for the Living Constitution
Living Constitution
vary, they can generally be broken into two categories
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Right To Petition In The United States
In the United States
United States
the right to petition is guaranteed by the First Amendment to the United States
United States
Constitution, which specifically prohibits Congress from abridging "the right of the people...to petition the Government for a redress of grievances". Although often overlooked in favor of other more famous freedoms, and sometimes taken for granted,[1] many other civil liberties are enforceable against the government only by exercising this basic right.[2] The right to petition is regarded as fundamental in some republics, such as the United States, as a means of protecting public participation in government.[1]Contents1 Historic roots 2 First use 3 Scope3.1 Restrictions4 ReferencesHistoric roots[edit] The American right of petition is derived from British precedent
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United States Reports
The United States Reports
United States Reports
are the official record (law reports) of the rulings, orders, case tables (list of every case decided, in alphabetical order both by the name of the petitioner (the losing party in lower courts) and by the name of the respondent (the prevailing party below)), and other proceedings of the Supreme Court of the United States. United States Reports
United States Reports
are printed and bound and are the final version of court opinions and cannot be changed. Opinions of the court in each case, prepended with a headnote prepared by the Reporter of Decisions, and any concurring or dissenting opinions are published sequentially
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Controlled Substances Act
The Controlled Substances Act
Controlled Substances Act
(CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated. It was passed by the 91st United States Congress
91st United States Congress
as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970
Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970
and signed into law by President Richard Nixon.[1] The Act also served as the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The legislation created five Schedules (classifications), with varying qualifications for a substance to be included in each
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Drug Prohibition In The United States
Use of heroin peaked between 1969 and 1971, marijuana between 1978 and 1979, and cocaine between 1987 and 1989.[1] A major decline in the use of opium started after the Harrison Act of 1914 was initiated.[2] An overarching effort to impose mandatory penalties for federal drug crimes took place in the 1980s. This caused many drug crimes that were common at the time to carry mandatory minimum sentences of 5 to 10 years in a federal prison. In 1996, California voters passed Proposition 215, legalizing the growing and use of marijuana for medical purposes. This created significant legal and enforcement conflict between federal and state government laws. Courts have since decided that a state law in conflict with a federal law concerning cannabis is not valid. Cannabis is restricted by federal law (see Gonzales v. Raich)
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Interstate Commerce Commission
The Interstate Commerce Commission
Interstate Commerce Commission
(ICC) was a regulatory agency in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. The agency's original purpose was to regulate railroads (and later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers, including interstate bus lines and telephone companies. Congress expanded ICC authority to regulate other modes of commerce beginning in 1906. The agency was abolished in 1995, and its remaining functions were transferred to the Surface Transportation Board. The Commission's five members were appointed by the President with the consent of the United States Senate
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Commerce
Commerce
Commerce
is "related to the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale".[1] Commerce
Commerce
includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that are in operation in any country or internationally.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 See also 4 ReferencesEtymology[edit] Commerce
Commerce
is derived from the Latin
Latin
commercium, from cum and merx, merchandise.[2] History[edit]The caduceus has been used today as the symbol of commerce[3] with which Mercury has traditionally been associated.Some commentators trace the origins of commerce to the very start of transaction in prehistoric times
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Strict Constructionism
In the United States, strict constructionism refers to a particular legal philosophy of judicial interpretation that limits or restricts judicial interpretation.Contents1 Strict sense of the term 2 Common use 3 History 4 Criticisms4.1 Doctrine of absurdity5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStrict sense of the term[edit] Strict construction requires a judge to apply the text only as it is written. Once the court has a clear meaning of the text, no further investigation is required. Judges—in this view—should avoid drawing inferences from a statute or constitution and focus only on the text itself.[1] Justice Hugo Black
Hugo Black
(1886–1971) argued that the First Amendment's injunction, that Congress shall make no law (against certain civil rights), should be construed strictly: no law, thought Black, admits no exceptions. However, "strict construction" is not a synonym for textualism or originalism
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Textualism
Textualism is a formalist theory in which the interpretation of the law is primarily based on the ordinary meaning of the legal text, where no consideration is given to non-textual sources, such as: intention of the law when passed, the problem it was intended to remedy, or significant questions regarding the justice or rectitude of the law.[1]Contents1 Definition 2 Methods 3 Australia 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingDefinition[edit] The textualist will "look at the statutory structure and hear the words as they would sound in the mind of a skilled, objectively reasonable user of words."[2] The textualist thus does not give weight to legislative history materials when attempting to ascertain the meaning of a text
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Purposive Approach
The purposive approach (sometimes referred to as purposivism,[1] purposive construction,[2] purposive interpretation,[3] or the modern principle in construction)[4] is an approach to statutory and constitutional interpretation under which common law courts interpret an enactment (a statute, part of a statute, or a clause of a constitution) within the context of the law's purpose. Purposive interpretation is a derivation of mischief rule set in Heydon's Case,[5] and intended to replace the mischief rule, the plain meaning rule and the golden rule.[6] Purposive interpretation is used when the courts use extraneous materials from the pre-enactment phase of legislation, including early drafts, hansards, committee reports, and white papers
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Voting Rights In The United States
The issue of voting rights in the United States, specifically the enfranchisement and disenfranchisement of different groups, has been contested throughout United States
United States
history. Eligibility to vote in the United States
United States
is established both through the federal constitution and by state law. Several constitutional amendments (the 15th, 19th, and 26th specifically) require that voting rights cannot be abridged on account of race, color, previous condition of servitude, sex, or age for those above 18; the constitution as originally written did not establish any such rights during 1787–1870
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List Of United States Supreme Court Cases, Volume 545
This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 545 of the United States Reports:Gonzales v. Raich, 545 U.S. 1 (2005) Alaska v. United States, 545 U.S. 75 (2005) Spector v. Norwegian Cruise Line Ltd., 545 U.S. 119 (2005) Johnson v. California, 545 U.S. 162 (2005) Bradshaw v. Stumpf, 545 U.S. 175 (2005) Merck KGaA v. Integra Lifesciences I, Ltd., 545 U.S. 193 (2005) Wilkinson v. Austin, 545 U.S. 209 (2005) Miller-El v. Dretke, 545 U.S. 231 (2005) Grable & Sons Metal Products, Inc. v. Darue Engineering & Mfg., 545 U.S. 308 (2005) San Remo Hotel, L. P. v. City and County of San Francisco, 545 U.S. 323 (2005) Dodd v. United States, 545 U.S. 353 (2005) Rompilla v. Beard, 545 U.S. 374 (2005) Graham County Soil & Water Conservation Dist. v. United States ex rel. Wilson, 545 U.S. 409 (2005) American Trucking Assns., Inc. v. Michigan Pub. Serv. Comm'n, 545 U.S. 429 (2005) Mid-Con Freight Systems, Inc. v. Michigan Pub. Serv
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Juries In The United States
The most outstanding feature in the United States is that verdicts in criminal cases must be unanimous. There are three types of juries in the United States: criminal grand juries, criminal petit juries, and civil juries. In the United States Constitution, juries are mentioned in Article Three and the Fifth, the Sixth, and the Seventh Amendments.[1] Juries are not available in courts of American Samoa
American Samoa
established pursuant to the Constitution of American Samoa.Contents1 History 2 Federal jury trial rights2.1 Criminal juries2.1.1 Grand jury 2.1.2 Petit jury2.1.2.1 Scope of constitutional right 2.1.2.2 Sentencing 2.1.2.3 Waiver2.2 Civil juries2.2.1 Seventh Amendment 2.2.2 Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 2.2.3 Waiver3 Jury
Jury
selection 4 Criticism 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The U.S. Declaration of Independence
U.S

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Right To Keep And Bear Arms In The United States
The right to keep and bear arms in the United States
United States
is a fundamental right[1][2][3] protected by the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, part of the Bill of Rights, and by the constitutions of most U.S
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New Deal
The New Deal
New Deal
was a series of federal programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States
United States
during the 1930s in response to the Great Depression. Some of these federal programs included the Civilian Conservation Corps
Civilian Conservation Corps
(CCC), the Civil Works Administration (CWA), the Farm Security Administration
Farm Security Administration
(FSA), the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933
National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933
(NIRA) and the Social Security Administration (SSA).[1][2][3][4][5] These programs included support for farmers, the unemployed, youth and the elderly as well as new constraints and safeguards on the banking industry and changes to the monetary system. Most programs were enacted between 1933–1938, though some were later
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