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College Of Cardinals
The COLLEGE OF CARDINALS, formerly styled SACRED COLLEGE OF CARDINALS, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Its membership was 225 as of 28 June 2016. Most cardinals exit the College only by death, although a few leave it by election to the papacy , and still fewer leave by resignation or dismissal. Changes in life expectancy partly account for the increases in the size of the College. Since the emergence of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
in the Early Middle Ages , the size of the body has historically been limited by popes , ecumenical councils , and even the College itself
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Churches Militant, Penitent, And Triumphant
In Christian theology , the Christian Church
Christian Church
is traditionally divided into: * the CHURCH MILITANT (Latin : Ecclesia militans), which consists of Christians on earth who struggle as soldiers of Christ against sin , the devil , and "the rulers of the world of this darkness, against the spirits of wickedness in the high places"; * the CHURCH PENITENT (Latin: Ecclesia poenitens), also called the CHURCH SUFFERING (Latin: Ecclesia dolens) or the CHURCH EXPECTANT (Latin: Ecclesia expectans), which in the theology of certain churches, especially that of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, consists of those Christians presently in Purgatory ; and * the CHURCH TRIUMPHANT (Latin: Ecclesia triumphans), which consists of those who have the beatific vision and are in Heaven .These divisions are known as the THREE STATES OF THE CHURCH, especially within Catholic ecclesiology
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Holy Spirit (Christianity)
For the majority of Christian
Christian
denominations, the HOLY SPIRIT or HOLY GHOST is the third person (hypostasis ) of the Trinity
Trinity
: the Triune God manifested as Father , Son , and Holy Spirit; each person itself being God . Some Christian
Christian
theologians identify the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
with the Ruach Hakodesh (Holy Breath) in Jewish scripture, and with many similar names including: the Ruach Elohim (Spirit of God), Ruach YHWH (Spirit of Yahweh ), Ruach Hakmah (Spirit of Wisdom); In the New Testament it is identified, among others, with the Spirit of Christ, the Spirit of Truth, the Paraclete and the Holy Spirit. The New Testament
New Testament
details a close relationship between the Holy Spirit and Jesus
Jesus
during his earthly life and ministry
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Purgatory
In Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
theology, PURGATORY ( Latin
Latin
: Purgatorium, via Anglo-Norman and Old French
Old French
) is an intermediate state after physical death in which some of those ultimately destined for heaven must first "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven," holding that "certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come." And that entrance into Heaven
Heaven
requires the "remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven," for which indulgences may be given which remove "either part or all of the temporal punishment due to sin," such as an "unhealthy attachment" to sin
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Paschal Mystery
PASCHAL MYSTERY is one of the central concepts of Catholic faith relating to the history of salvation . Its main subject is the passion, death, and Resurrection of Jesus
Resurrection of Jesus
Christ – the work God the Father sent his Son to accomplish on earth. According to the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, "The Paschal Mystery of Jesus, which comprises his passion, death, resurrection, and glorification, stands at the center of the Christian faith because God's saving plan was accomplished once for all by the redemptive death of His Son Jesus Christ." The Catechism states that in the liturgy of the Church which revolves around the seven sacraments, "it is principally his own Paschal mystery
Paschal mystery
that Christ signifies and makes present." Catholic , Anglican
Anglican
and Orthodox Christian churches celebrate this mystery on Easter
Easter

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Passion Of Jesus
In Christianity, THE PASSION (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring" ) is the short final period in the life of Jesus
Jesus
covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary , defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of Salvation History . The commemoration begins with the portent grievance of the Blessed Virgin Mary , followed by Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and includes his institution of the Eucharist
Eucharist
at Last Supper
Last Supper
, his bleeding and Agony in the Garden followed by his arrest by the Sanhedrin priests and ultimate trial before Pontius Pilate
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Jesus In Christianity
In Christianity, Jesus
Jesus
is the Messiah
Messiah
( Christ
Christ
) and through his crucifixion and resurrection , humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life . These teachings emphasize that as the willing Lamb of God , Jesus
Jesus
chose to suffer on the cross at Calvary
Calvary
as a sign of his full obedience to the will of God the Father , as an "agent and servant of God". The choice Jesus
Jesus
made thus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam
Adam
's disobedience. Christians believe that Jesus
Jesus
was both human and divine—the Son of God
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Trinity
The Christian doctrine of the TRINITY ( Latin
Latin
: Trinitas, lit. 'triad', from trinus, "threefold") holds that God
God
is three consubstantial persons or hypostases —the Father , the Son (Jesus Christ ), and the Holy Spirit —as "one God
God
in three Divine Persons". The three persons are distinct, yet are one "substance, essence or nature" (homoousios ). In this context, a "nature" is what one is, whereas a "person" is who one is. The opposing view is referred to as Nontrinitarianism
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Episcopal Polity
An EPISCOPAL POLITY is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops . (The word "bishop" derives, via the British Latin and Vulgar Latin term *ebiscopus/*biscopus, from the Ancient Greek επίσκοπος epískopos meaning "overseer".) It is the structure used by many of the major Christian Churches and denominations , such as the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
, Eastern Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , Church of the East , Anglican and Lutheran
Lutheran
churches or denominations, and other churches founded independently from these lineages. Churches with an episcopal polity are governed by bishops, practicing their authorities in the dioceses and conferences or synods
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Latin Church
The LATIN CHURCH, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest part of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, governed directly by the Pope
Pope
, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity . It represents the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Catholic Church. Employing the Latin liturgical rites
Latin liturgical rites
, with 1.197 billion members (2011), the Latin Church
Latin Church
is considered to form the original and still major part of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
. It is headquartered in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved in Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Eastern Catholic Churches
The EASTERN CATHOLIC CHURCHES or ORIENTAL CATHOLIC CHURCHES, also called the EASTERN-RITE CATHOLIC CHURCHES, Greek Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope
Pope
in Rome , as part of the worldwide Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Headed by patriarchs , metropolitans , and major archbishops , the Eastern Catholic Churches are governed in accordance with the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches , although each church also has its own canons and laws on top of this, and the preservation of their own traditions is explicitly encouraged
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Canon Law (Catholic Church)
Corpus Juris Canonici
Corpus Juris Canonici
* Decretist * Regulæ Juris * Decretals of Gregory IX *
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Harrowing Of Hell
In Christian theology , the HARROWING OF HELL ( Latin
Latin
: Descensus Christi ad Inferos, "the descent of Christ
Christ
into hell") is the triumphant descent of Christ
Christ
into Hell
Hell
(or Hades ) between the time of his Crucifixion and his Resurrection when he brought salvation to all of the righteous who had died since the beginning of the world (excluding the damned). After his death, the soul of Jesus
Jesus
was supposed to have descended into the realm of the dead, which the Apostles\' Creed calls "hell" in the old English usage. The realm into which Jesus
Jesus
descended is called Sheol or Limbo by some Christian theologians to distinguish it from the hell of the damned
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Mary, Mother Of Jesus
MARY (Greek : Μαρία, translit. María; Aramaic : ܡܪܝܡ‎, translit. Mariam‎; Hebrew : מִרְיָם‎, translit. Miriam‎; Arabic : مريم‎, translit. Mariam‎), also known by various titles, styles and honorifics , was a 1st-century Galilean Jewish
Jewish
woman of Nazareth
Nazareth
, and the mother of Jesus
Jesus
, according to the New Testament and the Quran
Quran
. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament
New Testament
and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin (Greek: παρθένος, translit. parthénos) and Christians believe that she conceived her son while a virgin by the Holy Spirit . The miraculous birth took place when she was already betrothed to Joseph and was awaiting the concluding rite of marriage, the formal home-taking ceremony
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Catholic Moral Theology
Catholicism
Catholicism
portal Philosophy portal * v * t * e CATHOLIC MORAL THEOLOGY is a major category of doctrine in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, equivalent to a religious ethics . Moral theology encompasses Roman Catholic social teaching , Catholic medical ethics , sexual ethics , and various doctrines on individual moral virtue and moral theory
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Titles Of Mary
Mary is known by many different titles (Blessed Mother, Madonna, Our Lady), epithets (Star of the Sea , Queen of Heaven , Cause of Our Joy), invocations ( Theotokos , Panagia , Mother of Mercy) and other names ( Our Lady of Loreto
Our Lady of Loreto
, Our Lady of Guadalupe
Our Lady of Guadalupe
)
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