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Cojitambo
COJITAMBO is an Inca and pre-Inca archaeological ruin, a popular rock climbing site, and a small village west of Azogues , capital of Canar province of Ecuador
Ecuador
. The name is said by the Ecuadorian Ministry of Tourism to derive from the Quechua language
Quechua language
curi tambo, or Inn of Gold (although no gold has been found at the site). CONTENTS * 1 Location and description * 2 Background * 3 References * 4 External links LOCATION AND DESCRIPTIONThe Cojitambo
Cojitambo
archaeological site is at an elevation of 3,020 metres (9,910 ft) meters above sea level. Azogues is 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) northeast. The straight-line distance northeast from the city of Cuenca is 18 kilometres (11 mi). Stage-like terrace at Cojitambo archaeological site, Canar province, Ecuador
Ecuador

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Inca Road System
The INCA ROAD SYSTEM was the most extensive and advanced transportation system in pre-Columbian South America. It was about 39,900 kilometres (24,800 mi) long. :242 The construction of the roads required a large expenditure of time and effort, and the quality of that construction is borne out by the fact that it is still in quite good condition after over 400 years of use. :634 The network was based on two north-south roads with numerous branches. The best known portion of the road system is the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu . Part of the road network was built by cultures that precede the Inca Empire, notably the Wari culture . During the Spanish colonial era, parts of the road system were given the status of Camino Real . In 2014 the road system became a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site

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Chiefdom
A CHIEFDOM is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship , and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'. These elites form a political-ideological aristocracy relative to the general group. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Chiefdoms in Archaeological Theory * 1.2 Simple * 1.3 Complex * 2 Chiefdoms on the Indian subcontinent * 3 Native Chieftain System in southern China * 4 Alternatives to chiefdoms * 5 See also * 6 Bibliography * 7 References * 8 External links OVERVIEWIn anthropological theory , one model of human social development rooted in ideas of cultural evolution describes a chiefdom as a form of social organization more complex than a tribe or a band society , and less complex than a state or a civilization
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Andesite
INTERMEDIATE MAJOR MINERALS: plagioclase (often andesine ) and pyroxene or hornblende ACCESSORY MINERALS: magnetites , biotite , sphene , quartz A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite . Diameter of view is 8 cm. Andesite
Andesite
Mount Žarnov ( Vtáčnik ), Slovakia Andesite
Andesite
pillar in Slovakia ANDESITE ( /ˈændɪsaɪt/ or /ˈændɪzaɪt/ ) is an extrusive igneous , volcanic rock , of intermediate composition , with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. In a general sense, it is the intermediate type between basalt and granite , and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams . The mineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene or hornblende . Magnetite
Magnetite
, zircon , apatite , ilmenite , biotite , and garnet are common accessory minerals
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Cuenca, Ecuador
The city of CUENCA — in full, SANTA ANA DE LOS CUATRO RíOS DE CUENCA — is the capital of the Azuay Province
Azuay Province
. It is widely regarded as the most European city in the country of Ecuador
Ecuador
due to its 16th and 17th century era Spanish colonial architecture resembling cities and architecture throughout Spain. The city of Cuenca is located in the highlands of Ecuador
Ecuador
at about 2,500 metres (8,200 feet) above sea level , with an urban population of approximately 400,000 rising to 700,000 inhabitants in the larger metropolitan area. The centre of the city is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Trust site due to its many historical buildings
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Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui
PACHACUTI INCA YUPANQUI or PACHAKUTIQ INKA YUPANKI (Quechua ) was the ninth Sapa Inca
Sapa Inca
(1418–1471/1472) of the Kingdom of Cusco
Cusco
which he transformed into the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
(Tawantinsuyu). Most archaeologists now believe that the famous Inca site of Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu
was built as an estate for Pachacuti. In Quechua Pachakutiq means "he who overturns space and time" (though more commonly translated as "earth shaker"), and Yupanki means "with honor". During his reign, Cusco
Cusco
grew from a hamlet into an empire that could compete with, and eventually overtake, the Chimú
Chimú
. He began an era of conquest that, within three generations, expanded the Inca dominion from the valley of Cusco
Cusco
to nearly the whole of western South America
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Rock Climbing
ROCK CLIMBING is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls . The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a usually pre-defined route without falling. Due to the length and extended endurance required and because accidents are more likely to happen on the descent than the ascent, rock climbers do not usually climb back down the route. It is very rare for a climber to downclimb, especially on the larger multiple pitches (class III- IV and /or multi-day grades IV-VI climbs). Professional rock climbing competitions have the objectives of either completing the route in the quickest possible time or attaining the farthest point on an increasingly difficult route. Scrambling , another activity involving the scaling of hills and similar formations, is similar to rock climbing
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Ecuador
Coordinates : 2°00′S 77°30′W / 2.000°S 77.500°W / -2.000; -77.500 REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR República del Ecuador
Ecuador
(Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Dios, patria y libertad" (Spanish ) * "Pro Deo, Patria et Libertate" (Latin ) * "God, homeland and freedom" ANTHEM: Salve, Oh Patria (Spanish) Hail, Oh Homeland Location of
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Cañar Province, Ecuador
CAñAR is a province in Ecuador
Ecuador
. The capital is Azogues . At the time of census 2010 the province had a population of 225,184. It contains the 16th-century ruins of Ingapirca , the best-known Inca settlement in Ecuador
Ecuador
and a product of their conquest of the indigenous Cañari
Cañari
. CONTENTS * 1 Cantons * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links CANTONSThe province is divided into 6 cantons . The following table lists each with its population at the time of the 2001 census, its area in square kilometres (km²), and the name of the canton seat or capital . CANTON POP
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Quechua Language
QUECHUA (/ˈkɛtʃuə/ , in AmE also /ˈkɛtʃwɑː/ ) , known as RUNASIMI ("people's language") in the Quechuan language, is an indigenous language family , with variations spoken by the Quechua peoples , primarily living in the Andes
Andes
and highlands of South America . Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas , with a total of probably some 8–10 million speakers. Approximately 25% (7.7 million) of Peruvians speak some variation of Quechua. It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of the Inca Empire . The colonisers initially encouraged its use, but from the middle of their reign they suppressed it. However, Quechua ultimately survived , and variants are still widely spoken today
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Azogues
AZOGUES (Spanish pronunciation: ) is the capital of Azogues
Azogues
Canton and of Cañar Province in Ecuador
Ecuador
. The population of Azogues
Azogues
is approximately 40,000. Azogues
Azogues
is located at 2,518 meters above sea level (8,261 feet), its population is of 39,848 inhabitants, its average temperature is 17 °C (63 °F). It is also known for its Panama hat
Panama hat
industry (jipi japa); the hats are produced primarily for export. CONTENTS * 1 Religion * 2 Transportation * 3 References * 4 Sources and External links RELIGIONThe city's Catedral San Francisco is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Azogues
Azogues
(established 1968), split off from its present Metropolitan, the Archdiocese of Cuenca
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Inca Empire
The INCA EMPIRE (Quechua : Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions" ), also known as the INCAN EMPIRE and the INKA EMPIRE, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America , and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco
Cusco
in modern-day Peru
Peru
. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru
Peru
sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods
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Tomebamba
TUMEBAMBA, TOMEBAMBA (hispanicized spellings) or TUMIPAMPA (Kichwa ) was a former city-state in the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
. Tumebamba
Tumebamba
was chosen by the Emperor Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
(ruled 1493-1525) to be the Inca northern capital.The city was largely destroyed during the civil war between Huascar
Huascar
and Atahualpa
Atahualpa
shortly before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in 1532. The Spanish city of Cuenca, Ecuador
Cuenca, Ecuador
was built on the site of Tumebamba
Tumebamba
although a portion of the Inca city is preserved at the archaeological sites of Pumapunku and Todos Santos
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Cojitambo
COJITAMBO is an Inca and pre-Inca archaeological ruin, a popular rock climbing site, and a small village west of Azogues , capital of Canar province of Ecuador
Ecuador
. The name is said by the Ecuadorian Ministry of Tourism to derive from the Quechua language
Quechua language
curi tambo, or Inn of Gold (although no gold has been found at the site). CONTENTS * 1 Location and description * 2 Background * 3 References * 4 External links LOCATION AND DESCRIPTIONThe Cojitambo
Cojitambo
archaeological site is at an elevation of 3,020 metres (9,910 ft) meters above sea level. Azogues is 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) northeast. The straight-line distance northeast from the city of Cuenca is 18 kilometres (11 mi). Stage-like terrace at Cojitambo archaeological site, Canar province, Ecuador
Ecuador

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