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Cojitambo
Cojitambo
Cojitambo
is an Inca and pre-Inca archaeological ruin, a popular rock climbing site, and a small village west of Azogues, capital of Canar province of Ecuador.[1] The name is said by the Ecuadorian Ministry of Tourism to derive from the Quechua language
Quechua language
curi tambo, or Inn of Gold (although no gold has been found at the site).[2]Contents1 Location and description 2 Background 3 References 4 External linksLocation and description[edit] The Cojitambo
Cojitambo
archaeological site is at an elevation of 3,020 metres (9,910 ft) meters above sea level. Azogues
Azogues
is 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) northeast
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Rock Climbing
Rock climbing
Rock climbing
is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a usually pre-defined route without falling. Due to the length and extended endurance required and because accidents are more likely to happen on the descent than the ascent, rock climbers do not usually climb back down the route. It is very rare for a climber to downclimb, especially on the larger multiple pitches (class III- IV and /or multi-day grades IV-VI climbs). Professional rock climbing competitions have the objectives of either completing the route in the quickest possible time or attaining the farthest point on an increasingly difficult route. Scrambling, another activity involving the scaling of hills and similar formations, is similar to rock climbing
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Cañar Province, Ecuador
Cañar (Spanish pronunciation: [kaˈɲaɾ]) is a province in Ecuador. The capital is Azogues. At the time of census 2010 the province had a population of 225,184.[1] It contains the 16th-century ruins of Ingapirca, the best-known Inca settlement in Ecuador and a product of their conquest of the indigenous Cañari.Contents1 Cantons 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksCantons[edit] The province is divided into 6 cantons. The following table lists each with its population at the time of the 2001 census, its area in square kilometres (km²), and the name of the canton seat or capital.[2]Canton Pop
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Ecuador
Coordinates: 2°00′S 77°30′W / 2.000°S 77.500°W / -2.000; -77.500Republic of Ecuador República del Ecuador  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Dios, patria y libertad" (Spanish) "Pro Deo, Patria et Libertate" (Latin) "God, homeland and freedom"Anthem: Salve, Oh Patria  (Spanish) Hail, Oh HomelandLocation of  Ecuador  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital Quito 00°9′S 78°21′W / 0.150°S 78.350°W / -0.150; -78.350Largest city GuayaquilOfficial languages Spanish[1]Recognized regional languages Kichwa
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Quechua Language
Quechua (/ˈkɛtʃuə/, in AmE also /ˈkɛtʃwɑː/)[2], known as Runasimi ("people's language") in the Quechuan language, is an indigenous language family, with variations spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes
Andes
and highlands of South America.[3] Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas, with a total of probably some 8–10 million speakers.[4] Approximately 25% (7.7 million) of Peruvians speak some variation of Quechua.[5][6] It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of the Inca Empire. The colonisers initially encouraged its use, but from the middle of their reign they suppressed it
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Cuenca, Ecuador
The city of Cuenca — in full, Santa Ana de los Cuatro Ríos de Cuenca — is the capital of the Azuay Province. It is widely regarded as the most European city in the country of Ecuador
Ecuador
due to its 16th and 17th century era Spanish colonial architecture resembling cities and architecture throughout Spain. The city of Cuenca is located in the highlands of Ecuador
Ecuador
at about 2,500 metres (8,200 feet) above sea level, with an urban population of approximately 400,000 rising to 700,000 inhabitants in the larger metropolitan area
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Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui or Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki (Quechua) was the ninth Sapa Inca (1418–1471/1472) of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu). Most archaeologists now believe that the famous Inca site of Machu Picchu was built as an estate for Pachacuti.[2] In Quechua Pachakutiq means "he who overturns space and time" (though more commonly translated as "earth shaker"),[3] and Yupanki means "with honor". During his reign, Cusco grew from a hamlet into an empire that could compete with, and eventually overtake, the Chimú. He began an era of conquest that, within three generations, expanded the Inca dominion from the valley of Cusco to nearly the whole of western South America
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Chiefdom
A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'
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Inca Road System
The Inca road system
Inca road system
was the most extensive and advanced transportation system in pre-Columbian South America. It was about 39,900 kilometres (24,800 mi) long.[1]:242 The construction of the roads required a large expenditure of time and effort.[2]:634 The network was based on two north-south roads with numerous branches.[3] The best known portion of the road system is the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu. Part of the road network was built by cultures that precede the Inca Empire, notably the Wari culture. During the Spanish colonial era, parts of the road system were given the status of Camino Real
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Andesite
Intermediate Major minerals: plagioclase (often andesine) and pyroxene or hornblende Accessory minerals: magnetites, biotite, sphene, quartzA sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. Diameter of view is 8 cm. Andesite
Andesite
Mount Žarnov (Vtáčnik), Slovakia Andesite
Andesite
pillar in Slovakia Andesite
Andesite
( /ˈændɪsaɪt/ or /ˈændɪzaɪt/[1]) is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. In a general sense, it is the intermediate type between basalt and granite, and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. The mineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene or hornblende. Magnetite, zircon, apatite, ilmenite, biotite, and garnet are common accessory minerals.[2] Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Azogues
Azogues
Azogues
(Spanish pronunciation: [aˈsoɣes]) is the capital of Azogues Canton
Azogues Canton
and of Cañar Province
Cañar Province
in Ecuador. The population of Azogues
Azogues
is approximately 40,000.[1] Azogues
Azogues
is located at 2,518 meters above sea level (8,261 feet), its population is of 39,848 inhabitants, its average temperature is 17 °C (63 °F)
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Inca Empire
The Inca Empire
Empire
(Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions"[2]), also known as the Incan Empire
Empire
and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America,[3] and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.[4] Its political and administrative structure "was the most sophisticated found among native peoples" in the Americas.[5] The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco
Cusco
in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization
Inca civilization
arose from the highlands of Peru
Peru
sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods
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Cañari
The Cañari
Cañari
(in Kichwa: Kañari) are an indigenous ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the territory of the modern provinces of Azuay
Azuay
and Cañar in Ecuador. They are descended from the independent pre-Columbian tribal confederation of the same name. The historic people are particularly noted for their resistance against the Inca Empire. Eventually conquered by the Inca in the early 16th century shortly before the arrival of the Spanish, the Cañari
Cañari
later allied with the Spanish against the Inca. Today, the population of the Cañari, who include many mestizos, numbers in the thousands. The earlier people defended their territory for many years against numerous Incan armies. Túpac Yupanqui
Túpac Yupanqui
conquered the Huancabambas, the most southern of the Cañari
Cañari
allies
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Tomebamba
Tumebamba, Tomebamba (hispanicized spellings) or Tumipampa (Kichwa) was a former city-state in the Inca Empire. Tumebamba was chosen by the Emperor Huayna Capac (ruled 1493-1525) to be the Inca northern capital.The city was largely destroyed during the civil war between Huascar and Atahualpa shortly before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in 1532.[1] The Spanish city of Cuenca, Ecuador was built on the site of Tumebamba although a portion of the Inca city is preserved at the archaeological sites of Pumapunku and Todos Santos. History[edit]The ruins of Pumapunku near the Tomebamba River in Cuenca,The Tumebamba area prior to the conquest by the Incas was called Guapondelig. The ethnic Cañari people had lived in this area for at least 500 years before the arrival of the Incas.[2] . The Inca emperor Topa Inca Yupanqui (ruled 1471-1493) incorporated this area into the empire after long and arduous campaigns against the Cañari
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