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Cognomen
A cognomen (/kɒɡˈnoʊmən/;[1][2] Classical Latin: [koːŋˈnoːmen]; Latin plural cognomina; from con- "together with" and (g)nomen "name") was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions. Initially, it was a nickname, but it lost that purpose when it became hereditary. Hereditary cognomina were used to augment the second name (the family name, or clan name) in order to identify a particular branch within a family or family within a clan. The term has also taken on other contemporary meanings.Contents1 Roman names 2 As a contemporary term 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksRoman names[edit] Further information: Roman naming conventions Because of the limited nature of the Latin praenomen, the cognomen developed to distinguish branches of the family from one another, and occasionally, to highlight an individual's achievement, typically in warfare
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Left-handedness
In human biology, handedness is a better, faster, or more precise performance or individual preference for use of a hand, known as the dominant hand; the less capable or less preferred hand is called the non-dominant hand.[1][2][3] Men are somewhat more likely to express a strongly dominant left hand than women.[4] It is estimated that between 70 and 95 percent of the world's population is right-handed.Contents1 Types 2 Causes2.1 Division of labor 2.2 Genetic factors 2.3 Epigenetic factors 2.4 Prenatal hormone exposure 2.5 Prenatal vestibular asymmetry 2.6 Ultrasound3 Handedness developmental timeline 4 Correlation with other factors4.1 Intelligence4.1.1 Early childhood intelligence4.2 Health 4.3 Income 4.4 Left-handedness and sports 4.5 Gender 4.6 Sexuality and gender identity5 In culture5.1 Negative appeal 5.2 International Left-Handers Day6 In other animals 7 See also 8 Sources 9 External linksTypes[edit]Right-handedness is most common
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Surname
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).[1] Depending on the culture all members of a family unit may have identical surnames or there may be variations based on the cultural rules. In the English-speaking world, a surname is commonly referred to as a last name because it is usually placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In many parts of Asia, as well as some parts of Europe
Europe
and Africa, the family name is placed before a person's given name. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two surnames are commonly used and in some families that claim a connection to nobility even three are used. Surnames have not always existed and today are not universal in all cultures. This tradition has arisen separately in different cultures around the world
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Catalan Language
Catalan (/ˈkætəlæn, -ən, ˌkætəˈlæn/;[4] autonym: català [kətəˈla] or [kataˈla]) is a Western Romance
Western Romance
language derived from Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the only official language of Andorra,[5] and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
and Valencia (where the language is known as Valencian). It also has semi-official status in the Italian commune of Alghero.[6] These territories are often called Catalan Countries. Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Maltese Language
Maltese (Maltese: Malti) is the national language of Malta
Malta
and a co-official language of the country alongside English,[3] while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished
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Xhosa People
Eastern Cape: 5,092,152 Western Cape: 1,403,233 Gauteng: 796,841 Free State: 201,145 KwaZulu-Natal: 340,832 Zimbabwe[1]: 200,000LanguagesXhosa (many also speak Zulu, English, and/or Afrikaans)Religiontraditional African religions, ChristianityRelated ethnic groupsZulu, Swati and Southern and Northern Ndebele peoplePerson umXhosaPeople amaXhosaLanguage isiXhosaThe Xhosa people
Xhosa people
(English: /ˈkɔːsə/ or /ˈkoʊsə/;[2][3] Xhosa pronunciation: [kǁʰɔ́ːsa] ( listen)) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa
Southern Africa
mainly found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country
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Iziduko
Xhosa clan names (isiduko (sing.), iziduko (pl.) in Xhosa) are family names that are considered more important than surnames among Xhosa people.[citation needed] Much like the clan system of Scotland, each Xhosa person can trace their family history back to a specific male ancestor or stock. Mentioning the clan name of someone is the highest form of respect, and it is considered polite to enquire after someone's clan name on meeting. The clan name is also sometimes used as an exclamation by members of that clan.[1] When a woman marries, she may take her husband's surname, but she always keeps her own clan name and adds the prefix Ma- to it
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Caecilia (gens)
The gens Caecilia was a plebeian[i] family at Rome. Members of this gens are mentioned in history as early as the fifth century BC, but the first of the Caecilii who obtained the consulship was Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter, in 284 BC.[1][2]Contents1 Origin 2 Praenomina 3 Branches and cognomina 4 Members4.1 Caecilii Metelli 4.2 Others5 Footnotes 6 See also 7 References 8 BibliographyOrigin[edit] Like other Roman families in the later times of the Republic, the Caecilii traced their origin to a mythical personage, Caeculus, the founder of Praeneste. He was said to be the son of Vulcan, and engendered by a spark; a similar story was told of Servius
Servius
Tullius. He was exposed as an infant, but preserved by his divine father, and raised by maidens. He grew up amongst the shepherds, and became a highwayman. Coming of age, he called upon the people of the countryside to build a new town, convincing them with the aid of a miracle
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Caecilii Metelli Family Tree
The Caecilii Metellii was one of the most important and wealthiest families in the Roman Republic. Although plebeians (meaning not of patrician stock), the Caecilii Metelli were nobles. The Caecilii Metellii remained a political power within the state, from the 3rd century BC to the end of the Republic, holding every office in the cursus honorum
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Yoruba People
Contemporary:Apala Fuji Were Yoruba Highlife Waka Jùjú Afrobeat SakaraFolk/Traditional:Ehin Ogbe Bolojo Obitun Biripo Bata Olele Ijala Gelede Ekun Iyawo/Rara Dadakuada Oriki Esa Alamo Gbedu Iremoje EwiNotable PersonalitiesList of Yoruba peopleReligionGod Olorun Olodumare OlofiDivination Ifá Opon Ifá Opele Odù IfáOrishas Obatala Osanyin Elegba Yemoja Olokun Shango Oya/Yansa Ogun Babalú-Ayé Oshun Oshosi Orunmila Aganju More....DiasporaOkus Bahians Saros Akus Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
Creoles Taboms, Agudas & Amaros Afro-Cubans / Lucumis U
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Oriki
Oríkì, or praise poetry, is a cultural phenomenon amongst Yoruba-speakers of West Africa.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Oríkì and surnames 3 Examples 4 See also 5 External linksCharacteristics[edit] The oríkì varies in length depending on whether it is the name given to a child to describe the future portents of the life or a recital of the accomplishments of a person's clan. It is invoked to praise a child for bringing pride to the parents or to attempt to evoke virtuous character traits of bravery, fortitude and perseverance that are believed to be innate in a person by pedigree. It is not always clear what was pre-eminent in the mind of the person who named a child with the shorter praise name
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Zulu People
The Zulu (Zulu: amaZulu) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Small numbers also live in Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania
Tanzania
and Mozambique.Contents1 Origins 2 Kingdom2.1 Conflict with the British 2.2 Absorption into Natal3 Apartheid
Apartheid
years3.1 KwaZulu
KwaZulu
homeland 3.2 Inkatha YeSizwe4 Modern Zulu population 5 Language 6 Clothing 7 Religion and beliefs 8 Notable Zulus 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksOrigins[edit] The Zulu were originally a major clan in what is today Northern KwaZulu-Natal, founded ca. 1709 by Zulu kaMalandela. In the Nguni languages, iZulu means heaven, or weather.[3] At that time, the area was occupied by many large Nguni communities and clans (also called isizwe=nation, people or isibongo=clan or family name)
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Isibongo
An isibongo is a clan name or praise name in Zulu culture. The term is derived from the verb -bonga meaning "to praise", "to thank", "to worship" or "to call by a clan name". The plural form "izibongo" (clannames) refers to praise poetry, a traditional Zulu art form in which the fame of a person is extolled. Izibongo are classically performed in public in a dramatic style, and usually reference the ancestry of the person being praised. Since the advent of democracy in South Africa, politicians (presidents in particular) are often accompanied to public events by their izimbongi (singular "imbongi") or praise poets whose performance sets the scene for a speech or ceremony. In former times this characterised only traditional leaders such as monarchs. Sources[edit]Masuku, Norma (November 2005). "Perceived oppression of women in Zulu folklore: a feminist critique" (PDF). University of South Africa.  p
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Clan Name (other)
Clan name may refer to:Chinese clan name (Chinese: 氏; pinyin: shì), one of two types of ancient Chinese surnames distinct from the ancestral name (姓, xing) Mongolian clan name, a portion of a Mongolian name Roman clan name, a common element of Latin names, usually the second name following the praenomen and before the cognomen Scottish clan, a geographically based system of family groupings (and, historically, of government) in Scotland Xhosa clan name, a respectful way of referring to a Xhosa person, after the name of a prominent ancestorAlthough clan names today tend to be restricted to the above named cultures, many other nations have traditionally been sub-divided into clans
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