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Coffee Production In Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia
was the fourth largest producer of coffee in the world in 2014.[1] Coffee
Coffee
in Indonesia
Indonesia
began with its colonial history, and has played an important part in the growth of the country
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Ngada
Ngada Regency
Ngada Regency
is one of the regencies which divide the island of Flores, East Nusa Tenggara
East Nusa Tenggara
Province, Indonesia. Bajawa
Bajawa
is the capital of Ngada Regency. The population of Ngada Regency
Ngada Regency
was 142,254 at the 2010 Census.Contents1 History 2 Administration 3 Language 4 Tourism 5 Culture 6 Soa Valley 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] The Ngada Regency
Ngada Regency
is one of the older regencies (kabupaten) in East Nusa Tenggara, having been formed in 1958. The regency was split into two in 2007, with part being formed into a new Nagekeo Regency. With the separate of Nagekeo, makes Ngada now only has two main ethnics which are ethnic Bajawa
Bajawa
and ethnic Riung. As is the case with other regencies across Indonesia, local events sometimes seize the headlines
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Coffea Canephora
Coffea
Coffea
robusta L.LindenRipe berriesFlowers Coffea
Coffea
canephora (syn. Coffea
Coffea
robusta), commonly known as robusta coffee, is a species of coffee that has its origins in central and western sub-Saharan Africa. It is a species of flowering plant in the Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
family. Though widely known as Coffea
Coffea
robusta, the plant is scientifically identified as Coffea
Coffea
canephora, which has two main varieties, robusta and nganda.[1]Contents1 Description 2 Native distribution 3 Cultivation and use 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] The plant has a shallow root system and grows as a robust tree or shrub to about 10 metres. It flowers irregularly, taking about 10–11 months for cherries to ripen, producing oval-shaped beans. The robusta plant has a greater crop yield than that of C
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Mandailing
The Mandailing is a traditional cultural group in Southeast Asia. They are found mainly in the northern section of the island of Sumatra
Sumatra
in Indonesia. They came under the influence of the Kaum Padri who ruled the Minangkabau of Tanah Datar. As a result, the Mandailing were influenced by Muslim culture and converted to Islam. There are also a group of Mandailing in Malaysia, especially in the states of Selangor and Perak. They are closely related to the Angkola.Contents1 Etymology 2 History2.1 The Padri War3 Region 4 The Great Mandailing 5 Notable people 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The etymology of 'Mandailing' is said to be a coupounding of the words mande, meaning 'mother', and hilang, meaning 'lost'. Thus, the name is said to mean "lost mother".[3] The Mandailing society is patriarchal, employing family names, or marga
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Central Tapanuli Regency
Central Tapanuli Regency
Central Tapanuli Regency
(Tanapuli Tengahis in Indonesia) is a regency in North Sumatra
North Sumatra
province, Sumatra, Indonesia. It is the seat is Pandan
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Aceh
Islam
Islam
98.19% Christian
Christian
1.12% <
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Sidikalang
Sidikalang is a town in North Sumatra
North Sumatra
province of Indonesia
Indonesia
and it is the seat (capital) of Dairi Regency. Coordinates: 1°55′16″N 98°33′58″E / 1.9210°N 98.5660°E / 1.9210; 98.5660This North Sumatra
North Sumatra
location article is a stub
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Shade-grown Coffee
Shade-grown coffee
Shade-grown coffee
is a form of the beverage produced from coffee plants grown under a canopy of trees. A canopy of assorted types of shade trees is created to cultivate shade-grown coffee. Because it incorporates principles of natural ecology to promote natural ecological relationships, shade-grown coffee can be considered an offshoot of agricultural permaculture or agroforestry
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Sulawesi
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes (/ˈsɛlɪbiːz/ or /sɪˈliːbiːz/), is an island in Indonesia. One of the four Greater Sunda Islands, and the world's eleventh-largest island, it is situated east of Borneo, west of the Maluku Islands, and south of Mindanao
Mindanao
and the Sulu Archipelago. Within Indonesia, only Sumatra, Borneo
Borneo
and Papua are larger in territory, and only Java
Java
and Sumatra
Sumatra
have larger populations. The landmass of Sulawesi
Sulawesi
includes four peninsulas: the northern Minahasa
Minahasa
Peninsula; the East Peninsula; the South Peninsula; and the South-east Peninsula
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Toraja
The Toraja
Toraja
are an ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous region of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Their population is approximately 1,100,000, of whom 450,000 live in the regency of Tana Toraja
Tana Toraja
("Land of Toraja").[1] Most of the population is Christian, and others are Muslim or have local animist beliefs known as aluk ("the way"). The Indonesian government has recognised this animistic belief as Aluk To Dolo ("Way of the Ancestors"). The word Toraja
Toraja
comes from the Buginese language
Buginese language
term to riaja, meaning "people of the uplands". The Dutch colonial government named the people Toraja
Toraja
in 1909.[5] Torajans are renowned for their elaborate funeral rites, burial sites carved into rocky cliffs, massive peaked-roof traditional houses known as tongkonan, and colourful wood carvings
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Rust (fungus)
Rusts are plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales). An estimated 168 rust genera and approximately 7000 species, more than half of which belong to the genus Puccinia, are currently accepted.[1] Rust fungi are highly specialized plant pathogens with several unique features. Taken as a group, rust fungi are diverse and affect many kinds of plants. However, each species has a very narrow range of hosts and cannot be transmitted to non-host plants
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Sukabumi Regency
Sukabumi
Sukabumi
Regency (Indonesian: Kabupaten Sukabumi; Sundanese: ᮊᮘᮥᮕᮒᮦᮔ᮪ ᮞᮥᮊᮘᮥᮙᮤ) is a regency (kabupaten) in southwestern Java, as part of West Java
West Java
province of Indonesia. The regency seat is located in Palabuhanratu, a coastal subdistrict facing the Indian Ocean. The regency fully encircles the administratively separated city of Sukabumi. Covering an area of 4,161.00 km2, The regency is the largest regency in West Java
West Java
and the second largest regency Java
Java
after the Banyuwangi Regency
Banyuwangi Regency
in East Java. The regency has a population of 2,434,221 (as of January 2015) with a large part of it lives in the northeastern part of the regency that encircles Sukabumi
Sukabumi
City south of Mount Gede
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Coffea Liberica
Coffea
Coffea
liberica (or Liberian coffee) is a species of flowering plant in the Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
family. It is a coffee that is native to western and central Africa
Africa
from Liberia
Liberia
to Uganda
Uganda
and Angola. It is also naturalized in the Seychelles, the Andaman & Nicobar Islands, French Polynesia, Central America, the West Indies, Venezuela, Colombia
Colombia
and Brazil.[2]Contents1 Cultivation and use 2 Taxonomy 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksCultivation and use[edit] The Coffea
Coffea
liberica tree grows up to 20 metres in height, producing larger fruits than those found on Coffea
Coffea
arabica trees. This coffee was brought to Indonesia
Indonesia
to replace the arabica trees killed by the coffee rust disease at the end of the 19th century
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Kopi Luwak
Kopi luwak (Indonesian pronunciation: [ˈkopi ˈlu.aʔ]), or civet coffee, is coffee that includes part-digested coffee cherries eaten and defecated by the Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(Paradoxurus hermaphroditus).[1] Fermentation occurs as the cherries pass through a civet's intestines, and after being defecated with other fecal matter, they are collected. Producers of the coffee beans argue that the process may improve coffee through two mechanisms, selection – civets choosing to eat only certain cherries – and digestion – biological or chemical mechanisms in the animal's digestive tract altering the composition of the coffee cherries. The traditional method of collecting feces from wild civets has given way to intensive farming methods in which civets in battery cage systems are force-fed the cherries
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Giling Basah
Giling Basah is a term used by Indonesian coffee processors to describe the method they use to remove the hulls of Coffea arabica. Literally translated from Indonesian, the term means "wet grinding". Confusingly, the Arabica coffee industry also uses the terms "wet hulled", "semi washed" and "semi dried" to describe the same process.[1] Most small-scale farmers in Sumatra, Sulawesi, Flores
Flores
and Papua use Giling Basah. The mature coffee bean, referred to as green coffee bean, is first harvested. In the Giling Basah processing method, farmers remove the outer skin from the cherries mechanically, using locally built pulping machines, called “luwak”
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Java
Java
Java
(Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese: ᮏᮝ) is an island of Indonesia. At about 139,000 square kilometres (54,000 sq mi), the island is comparable in size to England, the U.S. State
U.S. State
of North Carolina, or Omsk Oblast. With a population of over 141 million (the island itself) or 145 million (the administrative region), Java
Java
is home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the world's most populous island.[1] The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on western Java. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java
Java
was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s
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