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Codec
A codec is a device or computer program for encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal.[1][2][3] Codec is a portmanteau of coder-decoder. A codec encodes a data stream or a signal for transmission and storage, possibly in encrypted form, and the decoder function reverses the encoding for playback or editing. Codecs are used in videoconferencing, streaming media, and video editing applications.Contents1 Related concepts 2 Compression2.1 Media codecs3 See also3.1 Comparisons4 ReferencesRelated concepts[edit] In the mid 20th century, a codec was a device that coded analog signals into digital form using pulse-code modulation (PCM). Later, the name was also applied to software for converting between digital signal formats, including compander functions. A modem is a contraction of modulator-demodulator. The telecommunications industry referred to the device as a dataset
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CD-ROM
A CD-ROM
CD-ROM
/ˌsiːˌdiːˈrɒm/ is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data. The name is an acronym which stands for "Compact Disc Read-Only Memory". Computers can read CD-ROMs, but cannot write to CD-ROMs, which are not writable or erasable. During the 1990s, CD-ROMs were popularly used to distribute software for computers and video game consoles. Some CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data (such as software or digital video) is only usable on a computer (such as ISO 9660[2] format PC CD-ROMs). The CD-ROM
CD-ROM
format was developed by Japanese company Denon
Denon
in 1982
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Streaming Media
Streaming media
Streaming media
is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of delivering or obtaining media in this manner; the term refers to the delivery method of the medium, rather than the medium itself, and is an alternative to file downloading, a process in which the end-user obtains the entire file for the content before watching or listening to it. A client end-user can use their media player to start playing the data file (such as a digital file of a movie or song) before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g. radio, television, streaming apps) or inherently non-streaming (e.g. books, video cassettes, audio CDs)
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Hard Disk
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk[b] is a data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material. The platters are paired with magnetic heads, usually arranged on a moving actuator arm, which read and write data to the platter surfaces.[2] Data is accessed in a random-access manner, meaning that individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order and not only sequentially. HDDs are a type of non-volatile storage, retaining stored data even when powered off.[3][4][5] Introduced by IBM
IBM
in 1956,[6] HDDs became the dominant secondary storage device for general-purpose computers by the early 1960s. Continuously improved, HDDs have maintained this position into the modern era of servers and personal computers
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Non-volatile Memory
Non-volatile memory, nonvolatile memory, NVM or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled (turned off and back on). The opposite of non-volatile memory is volatile memory which needs constant power in order to prevent data from being erased. Examples of non-volatile memory include read-only memory, flash memory, ferroelectric RAM, most types of magnetic computer storage devices (e.g. hard disk drives, solid state drives, floppy disks, and magnetic tape), optical discs, and early computer storage methods such as paper tape and punched cards.[1] This article is about three distinct storage types:NVS: traditional Non-Volatile Storage in mechanical disks – Hard disk, Solid State Drive, Optical disk, floppy disk, etc. Non-Volatile Storage may also refer to NVM. NVM: storage in Non-Volatile Memory chips ( Flash memory
Flash memory
Storage) – EEPROM, SSD, NAND, etc
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Editing
Editing
Editing
is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual, audible, and film media used to convey information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation, organization, and many other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent, accurate and complete work.[1] The editing process often begins with the author's idea for the work itself, continuing as a collaboration between the author and the editor as the work is created. As such, editing can involve creative skills, human relations and a precise set of methods.[2][3]Editors work on producing an issue of Bild, West Berlin, 1977. Previous front pages are affixed to the wall behind them.There are various editorial positions in publishing. Typically, one finds editorial assistants reporting to the senior-level editorial staff and directors who report to senior executive editors
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Multimedia
Multimedia
Multimedia
is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content. Multimedia
Multimedia
contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia
Multimedia
can be recorded and played, displayed, interacted with or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia
Multimedia
devices are electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia
Multimedia
is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; for example, by including audio it has a broader scope
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Telecommunications Company
A telephone company, also known as a telco, telephone service provider,[1] or telecommunications operator, is a kind of communications service provider (CSP) (more precisely a telecommunications service provider or TSP) that provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications access. Many telephone companies were at one time government agencies or privately owned but state-regulated monopolies. The government agencies are often referred to, primarily in Europe, as PTTs (postal, telegraph and telephone services).[2] Telephone companies are common carriers, and in the United States
United States
are also called local exchange carriers
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Modem
A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can be used with any means of transmitting analog signals, from light-emitting diodes to radio. A common type of modem is one that turns the digital data of a computer into modulated electrical signal for transmission over telephone lines and demodulated by another modem at the receiver side to recover the digital data. Modems are generally classified by the maximum amount of data they can send in a given unit of time, usually expressed in bits per second (symbol bit(s), sometimes abbreviated "bps"), or bytes per second (symbol B(s)). Modems can also be classified by their symbol rate, measured in baud
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Sound
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain.[1] Humans can only hear sound waves as distinct pitches when the frequency lies between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz. Sound
Sound
above 20 kHz is ultrasound and is not perceptible by humans. Sound
Sound
waves below 20 Hz are known as infrasound
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DVD
DVD
DVD
(an abbreviation of "digital video disc"[5] or "digital versatile disc"[6][7]) is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips
Philips
and Sony
Sony
in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is widely used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD
DVD
players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs while having the same dimensions. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD. Such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be read and not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD
DVD
discs ( DVD-R
DVD-R
and DVD+R) can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and then function as a DVD-ROM
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Write Once Read Many
Write once read many (WORM) describes a data storage device in which information, once written, cannot be modified. This write protection affords the assurance that the data cannot be tampered with once it is written to the device. On ordinary (non-WORM) data storage devices, the number of times data can be modified is limited only by the lifespan of the device, as modification involves physical changes that may cause wear to the device. The "read many" aspect is unremarkable, as modern storage devices permit unlimited reading of data once written.[Note 1]Contents1 History 2 Current WORM drives 3 Research 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] WORM drives preceded the invention of the CD-R
CD-R
and DVD-R
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Video
Video
Video
is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.[1] Video
Video
was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were quickly replaced by cathode ray tube (CRT) systems which were later replaced by flat panel displays of several types. Video
Video
systems vary in display resolution, aspect ratio, refresh rate, color capabilities and other qualities
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Encryption
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot. Encryption
Encryption
does not itself prevent interference, but denies the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor. In an encryption scheme, the intended information or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm – a cipher – generating ciphertext that can be read only if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm. It is in principle possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, but, for a well-designed encryption scheme, considerable computational resources and skills are required
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Portmanteau
A portmanteau (/pɔːrtˈmæntoʊ/ ( listen), /ˌpɔːrtmænˈtoʊ/[a][b]) or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,[1] in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word,[1][2][3] as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog,[2][4] or motel, from motor and hotel.[5] In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph that represents two or more morphemes.[6][7][8][9] The definition overlaps with the grammatical term contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept. A portmanteau also differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words
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Signal (information Theory)
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".[1] In the physical world, any quantity exhibiting variation in time or variation in space (such as an image) is potentially a signal that might provide information on the status of a physical system, or convey a message between observers, among other possibilities.[2] The IEEE
IEEE
Transactions on
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