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Coccidioidomycosis
COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS (/kɒkˌsɪdiɔɪdoʊmaɪˈkoʊsɪs/ , kok-sid-ee-oy-doh-my-KOH-sis ), commonly known as "COCCI", "VALLEY FEVER", as well as "CALIFORNIA FEVER", "DESERT RHEUMATISM", and "SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY FEVER", is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii . Coccidioidomycosis is endemic in certain parts of Arizona
Arizona
, California
California
, Nevada
Nevada
, New Mexico
Mexico
, Texas
Texas
, Utah
Utah
, and northern Mexico
Mexico
. C. immitis is a dimorphic saprophytic fungus that grows as a mycelium in the soil and produces a spherule form in the host organism. It resides in the soil in certain parts of the southwestern United States , most notably in California
California
and Arizona
Arizona

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Mold
A MOLD (US ) or MOULD (UK / NZ / AU / ZA / IN / CA / IE ) is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae . In contrast, fungi that can adopt a single-celled growth habit are called yeasts . Molds are a large and taxonomically diverse number of fungal species in which the growth of hyphae results in discoloration and a fuzzy appearance, especially on food. The network of these tubular branching hyphae, called a mycelium , is considered a single organism . The hyphae are generally transparent, so the mycelium appears like very fine, fluffy white threads over the surface. Cross-walls (septa) may delimit connected compartments along the hyphae, each containing one or multiple, genetically identical nuclei . The dusty texture of many molds is caused by profuse production of asexual spores (conidia ) formed by differentiation at the ends of hyphae. The mode of formation and shape of these spores is traditionally used to classify molds
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Spore
In biology , a SPORE is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavorable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants , algae , fungi and protozoa . Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but also reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula. Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte . Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte , which eventually goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a new sporophyte
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Arvin, CA
ARVIN is a city in Kern County, California
California
. Arvin is located 15 miles (24 km) southeast of Bakersfield , at an elevation of 449 feet (137 m). As of the 2010 census , the population was 19,304, up from 12,956 at the 2000 census . In 2007, the United States
United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) listed Arvin as having the highest levels of smog of any community in the United States. The city's level of ozone, smog's primary component, exceeded the EPA's acceptable limits an average of 73 days per year between 2004 and 2006. Wired telephone numbers in Arvin follow the format (661) 854-xxxx or (661) 855-xxxx and the ZIP Code is 93203
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Community Acquired Pneumonia
COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases ) contracted by a person with little contact with the healthcare system. The chief difference between hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and CAP is that patients with HAP live in long-term care facilities or have recently visited a hospital. CAP is common, affecting people of all ages, and its symptoms occur as a result of oxygen -absorbing areas of the lung (alveoli ) filling with fluid. This inhibits lung function, causing dyspnea , fever , chest pains and cough . CAP, the most common type of pneumonia, is a leading cause of illness and death worldwide. Its causes include bacteria , viruses , fungi and parasites . CAP is diagnosed by assessing symptoms , making a physical examination and on x-ray . Other tests, such as sputum examination, supplement chest x-rays. Patients with CAP sometimes require hospitalization, and it is treated primarily with antibiotics , antipyretics and cough medicine
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South America
SOUTH AMERICA is a continent located in the western hemisphere , mostly in the southern hemisphere , with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere . It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas
Americas
, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil). It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Central America
CENTRAL AMERICA (Spanish : América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent , which connects with the South American continent on the southeast. Central America is bordered by Mexico
Mexico
to the north, Colombia
Colombia
to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
to the east, and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the west. Central America
Central America
consists of seven countries: Belize
Belize
, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, El Salvador , Guatemala
Guatemala
, Honduras
Honduras
, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, and Panama
Panama

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Host (biology)
In biology , a HOST is an organism that harbors a parasitic , a mutual , or a commensal symbiont , typically providing nourishment and shelter. Examples include animals playing host to parasitic worms (e.g. nematodes ), cells harbouring a parasitic virus , a bean plant hosting mutualistic (helpful) nitrogen-fixing bacteria . More specifically in botany , a HOST PLANT supplies food resources and acts as a substrate for commensalist insects or other fauna . GUEST is the generic term used for parasites, mutualists and commensals. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Host range * 3 See also * 4 References DEFINITIONSA HOST CELL is a living cell in which a virus reproduces. A PRIMARY HOST or DEFINITIVE HOST is a host in which the parasite reaches maturity and, if possible, reproduces sexually. A RESERVOIR HOST can harbour a pathogen indefinitely with no ill effects. A single reservoir host may be reinfected several times
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Soil
SOIL is a mixture of organic matter , minerals , gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. The Earth's body of soil is the pedosphere , which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage , supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth\'s atmosphere ; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. Soil
Soil
interfaces with the lithosphere , the hydrosphere , the atmosphere , and the biosphere . The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates ground stone. Soil
Soil
consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases
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Histopathology
HISTOPATHOLOGY (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease . Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist , after the specimen has been processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slides. In contrast, cytopathology examines (1) free cells or (2) tissue micro-fragments (as "cell blocks"). CONTENTS * 1 Collection of tissues * 2 Preparation for histology * 2.1 Chemical fixation * 2.2 Processing * 2.3 Frozen section processing * 3 Staining of processed histology slides * 4 Interpretation * 5 In myocardial infarction * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links COLLECTION OF TISSUESHistopathological examination of tissues starts with surgery , biopsy , or autopsy
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Bronchitis
BRONCHITIS is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs . Symptoms include coughing up mucus , wheezing , shortness of breath , and chest discomfort. Bronchitis
Bronchitis
is divided into two types: acute and chronic . Acute bronchitis is also known as a chest cold. Acute bronchitis usually has a cough that lasts around three weeks. In more than 90% of cases the cause is a viral infection . These viruses may be spread through the air when people cough or by direct contact. Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke , dust, and other air pollution . A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
or Bordetella pertussis
Bordetella pertussis

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Fatigue (medical)
FATIGUE is a subjective feeling of tiredness which is distinct from weakness , and has a gradual onset. Unlike weakness, fatigue can be alleviated by periods of rest . Fatigue can have physical or mental causes. Physical fatigue is the transient inability of a muscle to maintain optimal physical performance, and is made more severe by intense physical exercise . Mental fatigue is a transient decrease in maximal cognitive performance resulting from prolonged periods of cognitive activity. It can manifest as somnolence , lethargy , or directed attention fatigue . Medically, fatigue is a non-specific symptom , which means that it has many possible causes and accompanies many different conditions. Fatigue is considered a symptom , rather than a sign because it is a subjective feeling reported by the patient, rather than an objective one that can be observed by others. Fatigue and 'feelings of fatigue' are often confused
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Meninges
The MENINGES (/məˈnɪndʒiːz/ , singular: MENINX (/ˈmiːnɪŋks/ or /ˈmɛnɪŋks/ ), from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: μῆνιγξ mēninx "membrane", adjectival: MENINGEAL /məˈnɪndʒəl/ ) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord . In mammals, the meninges are the dura mater , the arachnoid mater , and the pia mater . Cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid
is located in the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. The primary function of the meninges is to protect the central nervous system
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HIV
The HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus ) that causes HIV
HIV
infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV
HIV
is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV
HIV
subtype. Infection with HIV
HIV
occurs by the transfer of blood , pre-ejaculate , semen , vaginal fluids , or breast milk . Within these bodily fluids, HIV
HIV
is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells
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Urinary Tract
The URINARY SYSTEM, also known as the RENAL SYSTEM, consists of the kidneys , ureters , bladder , and the urethra . Each kidney consists of millions of functional units called nephrons . The purpose of the renal system is to eliminate wastes from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood pH. The kidneys have an extensive blood supply via the renal arteries which leave the kidneys via the renal vein. Following filtration of blood and further processing, wastes (in the form of urine ) exit the kidney via the ureters, tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine towards the urinary bladder, where it is stored and subsequently expelled from the body by urination (voiding ). The female and male urinary system are very similar, differing only in the length of the urethra. Urine
Urine
is formed in the kidneys through a filtration of blood
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Meningitis
MENINGITIS is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord , known collectively as the meninges . The most common symptoms are fever , headache , and neck stiffness . Other symptoms include confusion or altered consciousness , vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises . Young children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms , such as irritability, drowsiness, or poor feeding. If a rash is present, it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied by a characteristic rash. The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses , bacteria , or other microorganisms , and less commonly by certain drugs . Meningitis
Meningitis
can be life-threatening because of the inflammation's proximity to the brain and spinal cord; therefore, the condition is classified as a medical emergency
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