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Coccidioidomycosis
Coccidioidomycosis
Coccidioidomycosis
(/kɒkˌsɪdiɔɪdoʊmaɪˈkoʊsɪs/, kok-sid-ee-oy-doh-my-KOH-sis), commonly known as "cocci",[1] "Valley fever",[1] as well as " California
California
fever",[2] "desert rheumatism",[2] and " San Joaquin Valley
San Joaquin Valley
fever",[2] is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis
Coccidioides immitis
or Coccidioides
Coccidioides
posadasii.[3] Coccidioidomycosis
Coccidioidomycosis
is endemic in certain parts of Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, and northern Mexico.[4] C. immitis is a dimorphic saprophytic fungus that grows as a mycelium in the soil and produces a spherule form in the host organism
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Histopathology
Histopathology
Histopathology
(compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease. Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist, after the specimen has been processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slides
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Bronchitis
Bronchitis
Bronchitis
is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.[1] Symptoms include coughing up mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort.[1] Bronchitis
Bronchitis
is divided into two types: acute and chronic.[1]
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Soil
Soil
Soil
is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. The Earth's body of soil is the pedosphere, which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage, supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth's atmosphere; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. Soil
Soil
interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere.[1] The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates ground stone
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Central America
Central America
Central America
(Spanish: América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast. Central America is bordered by Mexico
Mexico
to the north, Colombia
Colombia
to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
to the east, and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the west. Central America
Central America
consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama
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South America
South America
South America
is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,[3][4] which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[5] It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Mold
A mold (US) or mould (UK / NZ / AU / ZA / IN / CA / IE) is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.[1][2] In contrast, fungi that can adopt a single-celled growth habit are called yeasts. Molds are a large and taxonomically diverse number of fungal species in which the growth of hyphae results in discoloration and a fuzzy appearance, especially on food.[3] The network of these tubular branching hyphae, called a mycelium, is considered a single organism. The hyphae are generally transparent, so the mycelium appears like very fine, fluffy white threads over the surface. Cross-walls (septa) may delimit connected compartments along the hyphae, each containing one or multiple, genetically identical nuclei. The dusty texture of many molds is caused by profuse production of asexual spores (conidia) formed by differentiation at the ends of hyphae
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Spore
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and protozoa.[1] Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but also reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula.[2] Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which eventually goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a new sporophyte
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Arvin, CA
Arvin is a city in Kern County, California. Arvin is located 15 miles (24 km) southeast of Bakersfield,[9] at an elevation of 449 feet (137 m).[7] As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,304, up from 12,956 at the 2000 census. In 2007, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) listed Arvin as having the highest levels of smog of any community in the United States. The city's level of ozone, smog's primary component, exceeded the EPA's acceptable limits an average of 73 days per year between 2004 and 2006.[10] Wired telephone numbers in Arvin follow the format (661) 854-xxxx or (661) 855-xxxx and the ZIP Code is 93203.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Climate3 Economy 4 Demographics4.1 2010 4.2 20005 Education 6 Public safety6.1 Crime statistics 6.2 Full-time law enforcement employees7 Sources 8 Further reading 9 External linksHistory[edit] Property sales of lots in present-day Arvin began in 1906
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Community Acquired Pneumonia
Community-acquired pneumonia
Community-acquired pneumonia
(CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person with little contact with the healthcare system. The chief difference between hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and CAP is that patients with HAP live in long-term care facilities or have recently visited a hospital. CAP is common, affecting people of all ages, and its symptoms occur as a result of oxygen-absorbing areas of the lung (alveoli) filling with fluid. This inhibits lung function, causing dyspnea, fever, chest pains and cough. CAP, the most common type of pneumonia, is a leading cause of illness and death worldwide. Its causes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.[1] CAP is diagnosed by assessing symptoms, making a physical examination and on x-ray. Other tests, such as sputum examination, supplement chest x-rays
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Fatigue (medical)
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness which is distinct from weakness, and has a gradual onset. Unlike weakness, fatigue can be alleviated by periods of rest. Fatigue can have physical or mental causes. Physical fatigue is the transient inability of a muscle to maintain optimal physical performance, and is made more severe by intense physical exercise.[1][2][3] Mental fatigue is a transient decrease in maximal cognitive performance resulting from prolonged periods of cognitive activity. It can manifest as somnolence, lethargy, or directed attention fatigue.[4] Medically, fatigue is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes and accompanies many different conditions. Fatigue is considered a symptom, rather than a sign, because it is a subjective feeling reported by the patient, rather than an objective one that can be observed by others
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Mycelium
Mycelium
Mycelium
is the vegetative part of a fungus or fungus-like bacterial colony, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. The mass of hyphae is sometimes called shiro, especially within the fairy ring fungi. Fungal colonies composed of mycelium are found in and on soil and many other substrates. A typical single spore germinates into a homokaryotic mycelium, which cannot reproduce sexually; when two compatible homokaryotic mycelia join and form a dikaryotic mycelium, that mycelium may form fruiting bodies such as mushrooms. A mycelium may be minute, forming a colony that is too small to see, or it may be extensive:Is this the largest organism in the world? This 2,400-acre [970-hectare] site in eastern Oregon had a contiguous growth of mycelium before logging roads cut through it
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Fever
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response,[6] is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.[4][5] There is not a single agreed-upon upper limit for normal temperature with sources using values between 37.5 and 38.3 °C (99.5 and 100.9 °F).[6][7] The increase in set-point triggers increased muscle contractions and causes a feeling of cold.[1] This results in greater heat production and efforts to conserve heat.[2] When the set-point temperature returns to normal, a person feels hot, becomes flushed, and may begin to sweat.[2] Rarely a fever may trigger a febrile seizure.[3] This is more common in young children.[3] Fevers do not typically go higher than 41 to 42 °C (105.8 to 107.6 °F).[5] A fever can be caused by many medical conditions ranging from non serious to life threatening.[11] This includes viral, bacterial and parasitic infections such as the common cold, urinary tract infections
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Headache
Headache
Headache
is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. It occurs in migraines (sharp, or throbbing pains), tension-type headaches, and cluster headaches.[1] Frequent headaches can affect relationships and employment.[1] There is also an increased risk of depression in those with severe headaches.[1] Headaches can occur as a result of many conditions whether serious or not. There are a number of different classification systems for headaches. The most well-recognized is that of the International Headache
Headache
Society. Causes of headaches may include fatigue, sleep deprivation, stress, the effects of medications, the effects of recreational drugs, viral infections, loud noises, common colds, head injury, rapid ingestion of a very cold food or beverage, and dental or sinus issues. Treatment of a headache depends on the underlying cause, but commonly involves pain medication
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Rash
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. A rash may be localized in one part of the body, or affect all the skin. Rashes may cause the skin to change color, itch, become warm, bumpy, chapped, dry, cracked or blistered, swell, and may be painful. The causes, and therefore treatments for rashes, vary widely. Diagnosis must take into account such things as the appearance of the rash, other symptoms, what the patient may have been exposed to, occupation, and occurrence in family members. A rash can last 5 to 20 days, the diagnosis may confirm any number of conditions. The presence of a rash may aid diagnosis; associated signs and symptoms are diagnostic of certain diseases. For example, the rash in measles is an erythematous, morbilliform, maculopapular rash that begins a few days after the fever starts
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