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Coaxial Cable
COAXIAL CABLE, or COAX (pronounced /ˈkoʊ.æks/ ), is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. Many coaxial cables also have an insulating outer sheath or jacket. The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing a geometric axis. Coaxial cable was invented by English engineer and mathematician Oliver Heaviside , who patented the design in 1880. Coaxial cable differs from other shielded cables because the dimensions of the cable are controlled to give a precise, constant conductor spacing, which is needed for it to function efficiently as a transmission line
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Permittivity
In electromagnetism , PERMITTIVITY or ABSOLUTE PERMITTIVITY, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium . More specifically, permittivity describes the amount of charge needed to generate one unit of electric flux in a particular medium. Accordingly, a charge will yield more electric flux in a medium with low permittivity than in a medium with high permittivity. Thus, permittivity is the measure of a material's ability to RESIST an electric field, not its ability to ‘permit’ it (as the name ‘permittivity’ might seem to suggest). The SI unit for permittivity is Farad
Farad
per meter (F/m or F·m−1). The lowest possible permittivity is that of a vacuum. Vacuum permittivity, sometimes called the electric constant, is represented by ε0 and has a value of approximately 8.85×10−12 F/m
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Ohms Law
OHM\'S LAW states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points. Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance , one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship: I = V R , {displaystyle I={frac {V}{R}},} where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes , V is the voltage measured across the conductor in units of volts , and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms . More specifically, Ohm's law
Ohm's law
states that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current. The law was named after the German physicist Georg Ohm
Ohm
, who, in a treatise published in 1827, described measurements of applied voltage and current through simple electrical circuits containing various lengths of wire
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Skin Effect
SKIN EFFECT is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor. The electric current flows mainly at the "skin" of the conductor, between the outer surface and a level called the SKIN DEPTH. The skin effect causes the effective resistance of the conductor to increase at higher frequencies where the skin depth is smaller, thus reducing the effective cross-section of the conductor. The skin effect is due to opposing eddy currents induced by the changing magnetic field resulting from the alternating current. At 60 Hz in copper, the skin depth is about 8.5 mm. At high frequencies the skin depth becomes much smaller
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Polytetrafluoroethylene
POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The best known brand name of PTFE-based formulas is TEFLON by Chemours . Chemours is a 2015 spin-off of DuPont Co.
DuPont Co.
, which discovered the compound in 1938. PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high-molecular-weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine . PTFE is hydrophobic : neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, as fluorocarbons demonstrate mitigated London dispersion forces due to the high electronegativity of fluorine. PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction of any solid. PTFE is used as a non-stick coating for pans and other cookware . It is non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds , and so it is often used in containers and pipework for reactive and corrosive chemicals
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Bellows
A BELLOWS or PAIR OF BELLOWS is a device constructed to furnish a strong blast of air . The simplest type consists of a flexible bag comprising a pair of rigid boards with handles joined by flexible leather sides enclosing an approximately airtight cavity which can be expanded and contracted by operating the handles, and fitted with a valve allowing air to fill the cavity when expanded, and with a tube through which the air is forced out in a stream when the cavity is compressed. It has many applications, in particular blowing on a fire to supply it with air. Hand-made English fireplace bellows The term "bellows" is used by extension for a flexible bag whose volume can be changed by compression or expansion, but not used to deliver air. For example, the light-tight (but not airtight) bag allowing the distance between the lens and film of a folding photographic camera to be varied is called a bellows
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Impedance Matching
In electronics , IMPEDANCE MATCHING is the practice of designing the input impedance of an electrical load or the output impedance of its corresponding signal source to maximize the power transfer or minimize signal reflection from the load. In the case of a complex source impedance ZS and load impedance ZL, maximum power transfer is obtained when Z S = Z L {displaystyle Z_{mathrm {S} }=Z_{mathrm {L} }^{*},} where the asterisk indicates the complex conjugate of the variable. Where ZS represents the characteristic impedance of a transmission line , minimum reflection is obtained when Z S = Z L {displaystyle Z_{mathrm {S} }=Z_{mathrm {L} },} The concept of impedance matching found first applications in electrical engineering , but is relevant in other applications in which a form of energy, not necessarily electrical, is transferred between a source and a load
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Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
In electrical engineering , the MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM states that, to obtain maximum external power from a source with a finite internal resistance , the resistance of the load must equal the resistance of the source as viewed from its output terminals. Moritz von Jacobi published the maximum power (transfer) theorem around 1840; it is also referred to as "Jacobi's law". The theorem results in maximum power transfer, and not maximum efficiency . If the resistance of the load is made larger than the resistance of the source, then efficiency is higher, since a higher percentage of the source power is transferred to the load, but the magnitude of the load power is lower since the total circuit resistance goes up
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Persuasion
PERSUASION is an umbrella term of influence . Persuasion
Persuasion
can attempt to influence a person's beliefs , attitudes , intentions , motivations , or behaviors . In business, persuasion is a process aimed at changing a person's (or a group's) attitude or behavior toward some event, idea, object, or other person(s), by using written or spoken words to convey information, feelings, or reasoning, or a combination thereof. Persuasion
Persuasion
is also an often used tool in the pursuit of personal gain, such as election campaigning, giving a sales pitch , or in trial advocacy . Persuasion
Persuasion
can also be interpreted as using one's personal or positional resources to change people's behaviors or attitudes
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PVC
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (/ˌpɒlivaɪnəl ˈklɔəraɪd/ ), also known as poly vinyl or VINYL , commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer , after polyethylene and polypropylene . PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid (sometimes abbreviated as RPVC) and flexible. The rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe and in profile applications such as doors and windows. It is also used for bottles, other non-food packaging, and cards (such as bank or membership cards). It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers , the most widely used being phthalates . In this form, it is also used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, imitation leather, signage, phonograph records, inflatable products, and many applications where it replaces rubber. Pure polyvinyl chloride is a white, brittle solid. It is insoluble in alcohol but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran
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Ultraviolet Light
ULTRAVIOLET (UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays . UV radiation constitutes about 10% of the total light output of the Sun, and is thus present in sunlight . It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps , tanning lamps , and black lights . Although it is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms , long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce . Consequently, the biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan , freckling and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure, along with higher risk of skin cancer
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Cutoff Frequency
In physics and electrical engineering , a CUTOFF FREQUENCY, CORNER FREQUENCY, or BREAK FREQUENCY is a boundary in a system's frequency response at which energy flowing through the system begins to be reduced (attenuated or reflected) rather than passing through. Typically in electronic systems such as filters and communication channels , cutoff frequency applies to an edge in a lowpass , highpass , bandpass , or band-stop characteristic – a frequency characterizing a boundary between a passband and a stopband. It is sometimes taken to be the point in the filter response where a transition band and passband meet, for example, as defined by a 3 dB corner (a frequency for which the output of the circuit is −3 dB of the nominal passband value)
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Waveguide
A WAVEGUIDE is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound , with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two. This is a similar effect to waves of water constrained within a canal, or why guns have barrels that restrict hot gas expansion to maximize energy transfer to their bullets. Without the physical constraint of a waveguide, waves are decreasing according to the inverse square law as they expand into three dimensional space. There are different types of waveguides for each type of wave. The original and most common meaning is a hollow conductive metal pipe used to carry high frequency radio waves , particularly microwaves . The geometry of a waveguide reflects its function. Slab waveguides confine energy in one dimension, fiber or channel waveguides in two dimensions
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Phase Velocity
The PHASE VELOCITY of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space . This is the velocity at which the phase of any one frequency component of the wave travels. For such a component, any given phase of the wave (for example, the crest ) will appear to travel at the phase velocity. The phase velocity is given in terms of the wavelength λ (lambda) and period T as v p = T . {displaystyle v_{mathrm {p} }={frac {lambda }{T}}.} Equivalently, in terms of the wave's angular frequency ω, which specifies angular change per unit of time, and wavenumber (or angular wave number) k, which represents the proportionality between the angular frequency ω and the linear speed (speed of propagation) νp, v p = k . {displaystyle v_{mathrm {p} }={frac {omega }{k}}.} To understand where this equation comes from, consider a basic sine wave , A cos (kx−ωt). After time t, the source has produced ωt/2π = ft oscillations
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Gigahertz
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven
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Radiation
In physics , RADIATION is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium. This includes: * electromagnetic radiation , such as radio waves , microwaves , visible light , x-rays , and gamma radiation (γ) * particle radiation , such as alpha radiation (α) , beta radiation (β) , and neutron radiation (particles of non-zero rest energy) * acoustic radiation, such as ultrasound , sound , and seismic waves (dependent on a physical transmission medium) * gravitational radiation , radiation that takes the form of gravitational waves, or ripples in the curvature of spacetime. Radiation
Radiation
is often categorized as either ionizing or non-ionizing depending on the energy of the radiated particles. Ionizing radiation carries more than 10 eV , which is enough to ionize atoms and molecules, and break chemical bonds
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