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Coast Tsimshian Dialect
Tsimshian, known by its speakers as Sm'álgyax,[5] is a dialect of the Tsimshian
Tsimshian
language spoken in northwestern British Columbia
British Columbia
and southeastern Alaska. Sm'algyax means literally "real or true language." There is much debate over which larger family the Tsimshianic languages belong to. Many scholars believe that they are part of the controversial Penutian
Penutian
language stock, which includes languages spoken throughout the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
and California. Though probable according to linguists like Marie-Lucie Tarpent,[6] the existence of a Penutian
Penutian
stock has yet to be definitively proven
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Lateral Consonant
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth. For the most common laterals, the tip of the tongue makes contact with the upper teeth (see dental consonant) or the upper gum (see alveolar consonant), but there are many other possible places for laterals to be made. The most common laterals are approximants and belong to the class of liquids, but lateral fricatives and affricates are also common in some parts of the world. Some languages, such as the Iwaidja and Ilgar languages of Australia, have lateral flaps, and others, such as the Xhosa and Zulu languages of Africa, have lateral clicks. When pronouncing the labiodental fricatives [f] and [v], the lip blocks the airflow in the centre of the vocal tract, so the airstream proceeds along the sides instead
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Low Vowel
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth. Open vowels are sometimes also called low vowels (in American terminology [1]) in reference to the low position of the tongue. In the context of the phonology of any particular language, a low vowel can be any vowel that is more open than a mid vowel
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Near-close Near-front Unrounded Vowel
The near-close near-front unrounded vowel, or near-high near-front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨ɪ⟩, i.e. a small capital letter i
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Close Front Unrounded Vowel
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.[2] Although in English this sound has additional length (usually being represented as /iː/) and is not normally pronounced as a pure vowel (it is a slight diphthong), some dialects have been reported to pronounce the phoneme as a pure sound.[3] A pure [i] sound is also heard in many other languages, such as French, in words like chic. The close front unrounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the palatal approximant [j]. The two are almost identical featurally
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Close Back Unrounded Vowel
The close back unrounded vowel, or high back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a close back-central unrounded vowel.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨ɯ⟩. Typographically a turned letter m, given its relation to the sound represented by the letter u it can be considered a u with an extra "bowl"
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Near-close Near-back Rounded Vowel
The near-close near-back rounded vowel, or near-high near-back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some vocal languages. The IPA symbol that represents this sound is ⟨ʊ⟩. It is informally called "horseshoe u". Prior to 1989, there was an alternate IPA symbol for this sound, ⟨ɷ⟩, called "closed omega"; use of this symbol is no longer sanctioned by the IPA.[2] In Americanist phonetic notation, the symbol ⟨ᴜ⟩ (a small capital U) is used. Sometimes, especially in broad transcription, this vowel is transcribed with a simpler symbol ⟨u⟩, which technically represents the close back rounded vowel. The Handbook of the International Phonetic Association
International Phonetic Association
defines [ʊ] as a mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) close back rounded vowel,[3] therefore, an alternative transcription of this vowel is ⟨u̽⟩ (a symbol equivalent to a more complex ⟨ü̞⟩)
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Close Back Rounded Vowel
The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨u⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is u. In most languages, this rounded vowel is pronounced with protruded lips ('endolabial'). However, in a few cases the lips are compressed ('exolabial'). The close back rounded vowel is almost identical featurally to the labio-velar approximant [w]
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Mid Vowel
Paired vowels are: unrounded • roundedA mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a mid vowel is that the tongue is positioned midway between an open vowel and a close vowel. Other names for a mid vowel are lowered close-mid vowel and raised open-mid vowel, though the former phrase may also be used to describe a vowel that is as low as open-mid; likewise, the latter phrase may also be used to describe a vowel that is as high as close-mid. Vowels[edit] The only mid vowel with a dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is the mid central vowel with ambiguous rounding [ə]. The IPA divides the vowel space into thirds, with the close-mid vowels such as [e] or [o] and the open-mid vowels such as [ɛ] or [ɔ] equidistant in formant space between open [a] or [ɒ] and close [i] or [u]
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Open-mid Front Unrounded Vowel
The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages
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Close-mid Front Unrounded Vowel
The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨e⟩. For the close-mid (near-)front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ or ⟨i⟩, see near-close near-front unrounded vowel
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Open-mid Back Unrounded Vowel
The open-mid back unrounded vowel, or low-mid back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is an open-mid back-central unrounded vowel.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨ʌ⟩, graphically a rotated lowercase "v" (called a turned V but created as a small-capital ⟨ᴀ⟩ without the crossbar). Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as either a wedge, a caret, or a hat
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Open-mid Back Rounded Vowel
The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨ɔ⟩. The IPA symbol is a turned letter c and both the symbol and the sound are commonly called "open-o". The name open-o represents the sound, in that it is like the sound represented by ⟨o⟩, the close-mid back rounded vowel, except it is more open
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Near-open Front Unrounded Vowel
The near-open front unrounded vowel, or near-low front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is simply an open or low front unrounded vowel.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨æ⟩, a lowercase of the ⟨Æ⟩ ligature
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Long Vowel
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. Often the chroneme, or the "longness", acts like a consonant, and may have arisen from one etymologically, such as in Australian English. While not distinctive in most other dialects of English, vowel length is an important phonemic factor in many other languages, for instance in Arabic, Finnish, Fijian, Kannada, Japanese, Old English, Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Vietnamese. It plays a phonetic role in the majority of dialects of British English and is said to be phonemic in a few other dialects, such as Australian English, South African English and New Zealand English. It also plays a lesser phonetic role in Cantonese, unlike other varieties of Chinese. Many languages do not distinguish vowel length phonemically. Those that do usually distinguish between short vowels and long vowels. A very few languages distinguish three phonemic vowel lengths, such as Luiseño and Mixe
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Open Back Rounded Vowel
The open back rounded vowel, or low back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically, it is a near-open or near-low back rounded vowel.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨ɒ⟩. It is called "turned script a", being a rotated version of "script (cursive) a", which is the variant of a that lacks the extra stroke on top of a "printed a". Turned script a ⟨ɒ⟩ has its linear stroke on the left, whereas "script a" ⟨ɑ⟩ (for its unrounded counterpart) has its linear stroke on the right. A well-rounded [ɒ] is rare, but it is found in some varieties of English. In most languages with this vowel, such as English and Persian, the rounding of [ɒ] is slight, and in English at least, it is sulcal or "grooved"
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