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Cmglee Cambridge Wren Library University Library
A university (Latin: universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines
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University (other)
University
University
may refer to:University, an institution of higher educationContents1 Places 2 In educational institutions 3 Entertainment 4 See alsoPlaces[edit]University, Orange County, North Carolina University <
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History Of The Mediterranean Region
The Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
was the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples encompassing three continents: Western Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe
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Central Europe
Central Europe
Europe
is the region comprising the central part of Europe. Central Europe
Europe
occupies continuous territories that are otherwise sometimes considered parts of Western Europe, Southern Europe, and Eastern Europe.[3][4][5] The concept of Central Europe
Europe
is based on a common historical, social, and cultural identity.[6][7][8][9][10][9][11][12][13][14][15] Central Europe
Europe
is going through a "strategic awakening",[16] with initiatives such as the Central European Initiative
Central European Initiative
(CEI), Centrope, and the Visegrád
Visegrád
Four Group
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Academic Freedom
Academic freedom
Academic freedom
is the conviction that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy as well as the principles of academia, and that scholars should have freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts (including those that are inconvenient to external political groups or to authorities) without being targeted for repression, job loss, or imprisonment. Academic freedom
Academic freedom
is a contested issue and, therefore, has limitations in practice. In the United States, for example, according to the widely recognized "1940 Statement on Academic Freedom and Tenure" of the American Association of University Professors, teachers should be careful to avoid controversial matter that is unrelated to the subject
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University Of Bologna
The University of Bologna
Bologna
(Italian: Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088, is the oldest university in continuous operation,[2] as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy
Italy
and Europe[3]. It is one of the most prestigious Italian universities, commonly ranking first in national rankings.[4][5] It was the first place of study to use the term universitas for the corporations of students and masters, which came to define the institution located in Bologna, Italy.[6] The University's crest carries the motto Alma mater
Alma mater
studiorum and the date A.D. 1088, and it has about 85,500 students in its 11 schools.[7] It has campuses in Ravenna, Forlì, Cesena
Cesena
and Rimini
Rimini
and a branch center abroad in Buenos Aires.[8] It also has a school of excellence named Collegio Superiore di Bologna
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Authentica Habita
Authentica habita,[1] or Privilegium Scholasticum, was a document written in 1155 ca.[1] by the Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.[2] In it, he set out for the first time some of the rules, rights and privileges of Universities. It is a key founding document in the history of the medieval university in Europe. Scholars from all over Europe had begun to travel to Bologna to study civil and canon law, and newly rediscovered works of Roman law, from the mid-11th century. As foreigners there, they found themselves without legal protection
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Magna Charta Universitatum
The Magna Charta Universitatum is a document to celebrate university traditions and encourage bonds amongst European universities,[1] though it also serves as a universal inspiration and is open to universities throughout the world.[1] It was founded by the University of Bologna
Bologna
and the European Rectors' Conference (now EUA) in 1988,[1] and has been si
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Ancient Higher-learning Institutions
A variety of ancient higher-learning institutions were developed in many cultures to provide institutional frameworks for scholarly activities
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Encyclopædia Britannica
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
( Latin
Latin
for "British Encyclopaedia"), formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language
English-language
encyclopaedia. It was written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes[1] and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition. The Britannica is the English-language
English-language
encyclopaedia that was in print for the longest time: it lasted 244 years. It was first published between 1768 and 1771 in the Scottish capital of Edinburgh, as three volumes
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Medieval Universities
A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning. The first Western European institutions generally considered universities were established in the Kingdom of Italy, then part of the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Spain, and the Kingdom of Portugal
Kingdom of Portugal
between the 11th and 15th centuries for the study of the Arts and the higher disciplines of Theology, Law, and Medicine.[1] These universities evolved from much older Christian cathedral schools a
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University Of Al Quaraouiyine
The University
University
of al-Qarawiyyin, also written Al Quaraouiyine or Al-Karaouine (Arabic: جامعة القرويين‎; Berber languages: ⵜⵉⵎⵣⴳⵉⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵍⵇⴰⵕⴰⵡⵉⵢⵢⵉⵏ; French: Université Al Quaraouiyine), is a university located in Fez, Morocco. It is the oldest existing, continually operating and the first degree-awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO
UNESCO
and Guinness World Records[5][6] and is sometimes referred to as the oldest university.[7] It was founded by Fatima al-Fihri
Fatima al-Fihri
in 859 with an associated madrasa, which subsequently became one of the leading spiritual and educational centers of the historic Muslim
Muslim
world
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Fatima Al-Fihri
Fatima bint Muhammad Al-Fihriya Al-Qurashiya (Arabic: فاطمة بنت محمد الفهرية القرشية‎) was an Arab
Arab
Muslim woman who is credited for founding the oldest existing, continually operating and first degree-awarding educational institution in the world, The University of Al Quaraouiyine
University of Al Quaraouiyine
in Fes, Morocco in 859 CE.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 World's Oldest Library 3 References 4 Further readingBiography[edit]Karaouine Mosque and University.The madrasa she founded is still in operation today as the University of Al Quaraouiyine. It is the oldest continually operating educational institution in the world and is sometimes referred to as the world's oldest university, by being the first institution to award degrees indicative of different levels of study
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Madrasa
Madrasa
Madrasa
(Arabic: مدرسة‎, madrasah, pl. مدارس, madāris) is the Arabic
Arabic
word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university. The word is variously transliterated madrasah, medresa, madrassa, madraza, medrese, etc. In the West, the word usually refers to a specific type of religious school or college for the study of the Islamic religion, though this may not be the only subject studied
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Teacher
A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone (e.g. when showing a colleague how to perform a specific task). In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family (homeschooling), rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college. Some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching (e.g. youth worker, pastor). In most countries, formal teaching of students is usually carried out by paid professional teachers
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Arnold H. Green
Arnold H. Green (born July 1940) is a history professor retired from teaching at Brigham Young University, where he specialized in modern Middle-Eastern history, especially the eras of European colonization and of "decolonization" Biography[edit] Green was born in July 1940 and grew up in Arcadia, California, where he attended K-12 (1945–57). He then received (1959) an associate of arts degree from Citrus Jr College in Azusa. After one year (1959–60) at Brigham Young University, he served a 2.5-year mission for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
(LDS Church) in France, where his assignments included Nantes, Tours, La Rochelle, Troyes, Chatillon, Reims, and Fontenay-aux-Roses. He toured Europe for a month after his release in February 1963. Green returned to school in Summer 1963
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