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Climatology
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category)Climatology Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal)v t e Climatology
Climatology
(from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.[1] This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth sciences. Climatology
Climatology
now includes aspects of oceanography and biogeochemistry
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Petrified
In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material becomes a fossil through the replacement of the original material and the filling of the original pore spaces with minerals. Petrified wood
Petrified wood
typifies this process, but all organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, can become petrified (although harder, more durable matter such as bone, beaks, and shells survive the process better than softer remains such as muscle tissue, feathers, or skin). Petrifaction
Petrifaction
takes place through a combination of two similar processes: permineralization and replacement
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Statistical Analysis
Statistics
Statistics
is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.[1][2] In applying statistics to, for example, a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics
Statistics
deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.[1] See glossary of probability and statistics. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can reasonably extend from the sample to the population as a whole
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Anticyclone
An anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon defined by the United States
United States
National Weather
Weather
Service's glossary as "a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere".[1] Effects of surface-based anticyclones include clearing skies as well as cooler, drier air. Fog
Fog
can also form overnight within a region of higher pressure. Mid-tropospheric systems, such as the subtropical ridge, deflect tropical cyclones around their periphery and cause a temperature inversion inhibiting free convection near their center, building up surface-based haze under their base
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Francis Galton
Sir Francis Galton, FRS (/ˈfrɑːnsɪs ˈɡɔːltən/; 16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist,[1][2] anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician. He was knighted in 1909. Galton produced over 340 papers and books. He also created the statistical concept of correlation and widely promoted regression toward the mean
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin)
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Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland
Newfoundland
before crossing the Atlantic Ocean. The process of western intensification causes the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
to be a northward accelerating current off the east coast of North America
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Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
FRS FRSE (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705][1] – April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, humorist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions.[2] He founded many civic organizations, including Philadelphia's fire department and the University of Pennsylvania.[3] Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity, initially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies
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Edmund Halley
Edmond[1] (or Edmund[2]) Halley, FRS (/ˈɛdmənd ˈhæli/;[3][4] 8 November [O.S. 29 October] 1656 – 25 January 1742 [O.S. 14 January 1741]) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. He was the second Astronomer
Astronomer
Royal in Britain, succeeding John Flamsteed. He computed the orbit of Halley's Comet, which was named after him as a result.Contents1 Early life 2 Career2.1 Publications and inventions 2.2 Exploration years3 Personal life 4 Named after Edmond Halley 5 Pronunciation and spelling 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly life[edit] Halley was born in Haggerston, in east London. His father, Edmond Halley Sr., came from a Derbyshire
Derbyshire
family and was a wealthy soap-maker in London. As a child, Halley was very interested in mathematics. He studied at St Paul's School, and from 1673 at The Queen's College, Oxford
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Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Shaanxi
(Chinese: 陕西; pinyin: Shǎnxī) is a province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of the Northwest China region, it lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan
Henan
(E), Hubei
Hubei
(SE), Chongqing
Chongqing
(S), Sichuan
Sichuan
(SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia
Ningxia
(NW), and Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
(N). It covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people. Xi'an
Xi'an
– which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao
Fenghao
and Chang'an
Chang'an
– is the provincial capital
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Yan'an
Yan'an
Yan'an
(Chinese: 延安; Mandarin pronunciation: [jɛ̌n.án]) is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
province, China, bordering Shanxi
Shanxi
to the east and Gansu
Gansu
to the west. It administers several counties, including Zhidan (formerly Bao'an), which served as the headquarters of the Chinese Communists before the city of Yan'an
Yan'an
proper took that role. Yan'an
Yan'an
was near the endpoint of the Long March, and became the center of the Chinese Communist
Chinese Communist
revolution from 1936 to 1948
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Bamboo
The bamboos /bæmˈbuː/ ( listen) are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae. In bamboo, as in other grasses, the internodal regions of the stem are usually hollow and the vascular bundles in the cross section are scattered throughout the stem instead of in a cylindrical arrangement. The dicotyledonous woody xylem is also absent. The absence of secondary growth wood causes the stems of monocots, including the palms and large bamboos, to be columnar rather than tapering.[3] Bamboos include some of the fastest-growing plants in the world,[4] due to a unique rhizome-dependent system. Certain species of bamboo can grow 91 cm (36 in) within a 24-hour period, at a rate of almost 4 cm (1.6 in) an hour (a growth around 1 mm every 90 seconds, or 1 inch every 40 minutes).[5] Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family
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Dendroclimatology
Dendroclimatology
Dendroclimatology
is the science of determining past climates from trees (primarily properties of the annual tree rings). Tree
Tree
rings are wider when conditions favor growth, narrower when times are difficult. Other properties of the annual rings, such as maximum latewood density (MXD) have been shown to be better proxies than simple ring width. Using tree rings, scientists have estimated many local climates for hundreds to thousands of years previous
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Paleotempestology
Paleotempestology
Paleotempestology
is the study of past tropical cyclone activity by means of geological proxies as well as historical documentary records. The term was coined by Kerry Emanuel.Contents1 Methods1.1 Sedimentary proxy records 1.2 Markers in coral 1.3 Speleothems and tree rings 1.4 Historical records2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksMethods[edit] Sedimentary proxy records[edit] Examples of proxies include overwash deposits preserved in the sediments o
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Arctic Oscillation
The Arctic
Arctic
oscillation (AO) or Northern Annular Mode/Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM) is an index (which varies over time with no particular periodicity) of the dominant pattern of non-seasonal sea-level pressure variations north of 20N latitude, and it is characterized by pressure anomalies of one sign in the Arctic
Arctic
with the opposite anomalies centered about 37–45N.[1] The North Atlantic oscillation
North Atlantic oscillation
(NAO) is a close relative of the AO and there exist arguments about whether one or the other is more fundamentally representative of the atmosphere's dynamics; Ambaum et al
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