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Climate Change Levy
The Climate Change Levy (CCL) is a tax on energy delivered to non-domestic users in the United Kingdom. Its aim is to provide an incentive to increase energy efficiency and to reduce carbon emissions; however, there have been ongoing calls to replace it with a proper carbon tax.Contents1 Scope and purpose 2 Rates 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksScope and purpose[edit] Introduced on 1 April 2001 under the Finance Act 2000
Finance Act 2000
it was forecast to cut annual emissions by 2.5 million tonnes by 2010, and forms part of the UK's Climate Change Programme. The levy applies to most energy users, with the notable exceptions of those in the domestic and transport sectors. Electricity from nuclear is taxed even though it causes no direct carbon emissions
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Energy Conservation
Energy
Energy
conservation are efforts made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service. This can be achieved either by using energy more efficiently (using less energy for a constant service) or by reducing the amount of services used (for example, by driving less). Energy
Energy
conservation is a part of the concept of eco-sufficiency
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National Insurance
In the United Kingdom, National Insurance
National Insurance
(NI) is a system of taxes paid by workers and employers, used primarily to fund state benefits. It was initially a contributory system of insurance against illness and unemployment, and later also provided retirement pensions and other benefits.[1] It was first introduced by the National Insurance Act 1911 and expanded by the Labour government in 1948, and has been subject to numerous amendments in subsequent years. The contributions component of the system, "National Insurance Contributions" (NICs), is paid by employees and employers on earnings, and by employers on certain benefits-in-kind provided to employees. The self-employed contribute partly by a fixed weekly or monthly payment, and partly on a percentage of net profits above a certain threshold. Individuals may also make voluntary contributions in order to fill a gap in their contributions record and thus protect their entitlement to benefits
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Ophir Energy
Ophir Energy plc is an oil and gas exploration and production company based in London. It owns both operating and non-operating assets in Africa, Asia, and Mexico
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Greenhouse Gas
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect.[1] The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone
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Centre For Tax Policy And Administration
The Centre for Tax
Tax
Policy and Administration is part of the Secretariat of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
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Ecological Tax Reform
An Ecotax (short for ecological taxation) is a tax levied on activities which are considered to be harmful to the environment and is intended to promote environmentally friendly activities via economic incentives. Such a policy can complement or avert the need for regulatory (command and control) approaches. Often, an ecotax policy proposal may attempt to maintain overall tax revenue by proportionately reducing other taxes (e.g. taxes on human labor and renewable resources); such proposals are known as a green tax shift towards ecological taxation. Ecotaxes address the failure of free markets to consider environmental impacts.[1] Ecotaxes are examples of Pigouvian taxes, which are taxes that attempt to make the private parties involved feel the social burden of their actions
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Climate Change In The United Kingdom
Climate
Climate
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has been a subject of protests and controversies and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects
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Glencore
Glencore
Glencore
plc (an acronym for Global Energy Commodity
Commodity
Resources) is an Anglo–Swiss multinational commodity trading and mining company with headquarters in Baar, Switzerland, and a registered office in Saint Helier, Jersey. The current company was created through a merger of Glencore
Glencore
with Xstrata
Xstrata
on 2 May 2013.[2] As of 2015[update], it ranked tenth in the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies.[3] As Glencore
Glencore
International, the company was already one of the world's leading integrated producers and marketers of commodities
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Natural Gas
Natural gas
Natural gas
is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.[2] It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas.[3] Natural gas
Natural gas
is a fossil fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals
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Cogeneration
Cogeneration
Cogeneration
or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine[1] or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Trigeneration
Trigeneration
or combined cooling, heat and power refers to the simultaneous generation of electricity and useful heating and cooling from the combustion of a fuel or a solar heat collector
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July 2015 United Kingdom Budget
The 2015 United Kingdom summer budget was delivered by George Osborne, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, to the House of Commons on Wednesday, 8 July 2015.[1][2] This was the first fully Conservative budget since that presented by Kenneth Clarke
Kenneth Clarke
in 1996.[3][4]Contents1 Background 2 Measures2.1 Taxes 2.2 Spending3 ReferencesBackground[edit] The background to the budget was that of significant economic growth at 3%. The budget proposes spending of £742 billion and an income of £673 billion in 2015-16; a deficit of £69 billion (almost 10% of UK public spending).[5] The budget passed with a majority of 30 votes (320 votes for, 290 against with 36 abstentions).[6] All Conservative MPs voted for the budget (with 9 abstentions). The Labour party voted against the bill with 19 MPs abstaining. Measures[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Renewable Energy
Renewable energy
Renewable energy
is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.[2] Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[3] Based on REN21's 2016 report, renewables contributed 19.2% to humans' global energy consumption and 23.7% to their generation of electricity in 2014 and 2015, respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 8.9% coming from traditional biomass, 4.2% as heat energy (modern biomass, geothermal and solar heat), 3.9% hydro electricity and 2.2% is electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass
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HMRC
Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs
Customs
(HM Revenue and Customs
Customs
or HMRC)[3] is a non-minis
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Tullow Oil
Tullow
Tullow
Oil plc is a multinational oil and gas exploration company founded in Tullow, Ireland
Ireland
with its headquarters in London, United Kingdom.[2] It has interests in over 150 licenses ac
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Melrose Resources
Melrose Resources plc was a Scottish oil and gas exploration and production business. Its activities focused on Egypt, France, Turkey and the United States. History[edit] The Company was formed in 1992 by Robert Adair to exploit international oil opportunities. It was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1999. In 2006, the company acquired Merlon Petroleum, an oil business with which it shared interests in Egypt.[1] In October 2012, Melrose Resources merged with Dublin-based Petroceltic International plc in a share for share deal worth $222m, this added new exploration assets in Algeria, Kurdistan
Kurdistan
and Italy
Italy
to the existing Melrose portfolio and formed a full cycle oil and gas exploration and production company
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