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Claude Pouillet
CLAUDE SERVAIS MATHIAS POUILLET (16 February 1790 – 14 June 1868) was a French physicist and a professor of physics at the Sorbonne
Sorbonne
and member of the French Academy of Sciences
French Academy of Sciences
(elected 1837). CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Scientific research * 3 Bibliography * 4 See also * 5 References BIOGRAPHYHe studied sciences at the École Normale Supérieure
École Normale Supérieure
in Paris
Paris
, and from 1829 to 1849 was associated with the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers , first as a professor, and beginning in 1832, an administrator. After the death of Pierre Louis Dulong in 1838, he attained the chair of physics at the Faculty of Sciences. For a brief period of time, he was chair of physics at the École Polytechnique (1831), where he was succeeded by César Despretz in 1831 and Gabriel Lamé in 1832
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Photography
PHOTOGRAPHY is the science , art , application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation , either electronically by means of an image sensor , or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film . Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure . With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel , which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image , which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing
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Photometry (astronomy)
PHOTOMETRY is a technique of astronomy concerned with measuring the flux , or intensity of an astronomical object 's electromagnetic radiation . When photometry is performed over broad wavelength bands of radiation , where not only the amount of radiation but also its spectral distribution is measured, the term spectrophotometry is used. The word is composed of the Greek affixes photo- ("light") and -metry ("measure"). CONTENTS * 1 Methods * 2 CCD photometry * 2.1 Calibrations * 2.2 Absolute photometry * 2.3 Relative photometry * 2.4 Differential photometry * 2.5 Surface photometry * 3 Applications * 4 Software * 5 Organizations * 6 See also * 7 References METHODSThe methods used to perform photometry depend on the wavelength regime under study
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Diffraction
DIFFRACTION refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the bending of light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle. In classical physics , the diffraction phenomenon is described as the interference of waves according to the Huygens–Fresnel principle . These characteristic behaviors are exhibited when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit that is comparable in size to its wavelength . Similar effects occur when a light wave travels through a medium with a varying refractive index , or when a sound wave travels through a medium with varying acoustic impedance . Diffraction
Diffraction
occurs with all waves, including sound waves , water waves , and electromagnetic waves such as visible light , X-rays and radio waves
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Meteorology
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry (category) METEOROLOGY Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category) CLIMATOLOGY Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal) * v * t * e METEOROLOGY is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics , with a major focus on weather forecasting . The study of meteorology dates back millennia , though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data
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Magnetism
MAGNETISM is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields . Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets , producing magnetic fields themselves. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic; the most common ones are iron , nickel and cobalt and their alloys. The prefix ferro- refers to iron , because permanent magnetism was first observed in lodestone , a form of natural iron ore called magnetite , Fe3O4. Although ferromagnetism is responsible for most of the effects of magnetism encountered in everyday life, all other materials are influenced to some extent by a magnetic field, by several other types of magnetism
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Joseph Stefan
JOSEF STEFAN (Slovene : Jozef Stefan; 24 March 1835 – 7 January 1893) was an ethnic Carinthian Slovene physicist , mathematician , and poet of the Austrian Empire . CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 Work * 3 Eponymous terms * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links LIFE AND WORKStefan was born in an outskirt village of St. Peter (Slovene: Sveti Peter; today a district of Klagenfurt ) in the Austrian Empire (now in Austria ) to father Aleš (Aleksander) Stefan, born in 1805, and mother Marija Startinik, born 1815. His parents, both ethnic Slovenes, married when Josef was eleven. The Stefans were a modest family. His father was a milling assistant and mother served as a maidservant. Stefan's mother died in 1863 and his father in 1872. Stefan attended elementary school in Klagenfurt, where he showed his talent. They recommended to him to continue his schooling, so in 1845, he went to Klagenfurt Lyceum (de)
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Electricity
ELECTRICITY is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence of electric charge . Although initially considered a phenomenon separate from magnetism , since the development of Maxwell's Equations, both are recognized as part of a single phenomenon: electromagnetism . Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning , static electricity , electric heating , electric discharges and many others. In addition, electricity is at the heart of many modern technologies. The presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field . On the other hand, the movement of electric charges, which is known as electric current , produces a magnetic field . When a charge is placed in a location with non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb\'s Law . Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge
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Climatology
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry (category) METEOROLOGY Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category) CLIMATOLOGY Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal) * v * t * e CLIMATOLOGY (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or CLIMATE SCIENCE is the study of climate , scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography , which is one of the Earth sciences . Climatology
Climatology
now includes aspects of oceanography and biogeochemistry
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Stefan-Boltzmann Law
The STEFAN–BOLTZMANN LAW describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature . Specifically, the Stefan–Boltzmann law states that the total energy radiated per unit surface area of a black body across all wavelengths per unit time (also known as the black-body radiant emittance or radiant exitance ), j {displaystyle j^{star }} , is directly proportional to the fourth power of the black body's thermodynamic temperature T: j = T 4 . {displaystyle j^{star }=sigma T^{4}.} The constant of proportionality σ, called the Stefan–Boltzmann constant derives from other known constants of nature
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Biblioteca Nacional De España
The BIBLIOTECA NACIONAL DE ESPAñA (National Library of Spain) is a major public library , the largest in Spain, and one of the largest in the world. It is located in Madrid
Madrid
, on the Paseo de Recoletos . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 The library today * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links * 6 Images HISTORYThe library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library (Biblioteca Pública de Palacio). The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain
Spain
to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance (Ministerio de la Gobernación). At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional
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Institute For Advanced Technology In The Humanities
Coordinates : 37°32′12.2″N 78°30′20″W / 37.536722°N 78.50556°W / 37.536722; -78.50556 THIS ARTICLE HAS MULTIPLE ISSUES. Please help IMPROVE IT or discuss these issues on the TALK PAGE . (Learn how and when to remove these template messages ) This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) The topic of this article MAY NOT MEET\'S NOTABILITY GUIDELINES FOR COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS . Please help to establish notability by citing reliable secondary sources that are independent of the topic and provide significant coverage of it beyond its mere trivial mention
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The BIBLIOTHèQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE (BNF; French: ) is the National Library of France
France
, located in Paris
Paris
. It is the national repository of all that is published in France. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 New buildings * 3 Mission * 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection * 5 Digital library * 6 Popular culture * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. Charles had received a collection of manuscripts from his predecessor, John II , and transferred them to the Louvre
Louvre
from the Palais de la Cité
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The SYSTèME UNIVERSITAIRE DE DOCUMENTATION or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONTROL NUMBER (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names. The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
prepared cards of bibliographic information for their library catalog and would sell duplicate sets of the cards to other libraries for use in their catalogs
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