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Claude Pouillet
Claude Servais Mathias Pouillet (16 February 1790 – 14 June 1868) was a French physicist and a professor of physics at the Sorbonne
Sorbonne
and member of the French Academy of Sciences
French Academy of Sciences
(elected 1837).Contents1 Biography 2 Scientific research 3 Bibliography 4 See also 5 ReferencesBiography[edit] He studied sciences at the École Normale Supérieure
École Normale Supérieure
in Paris, and from 1829 to 1849 was associated with the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, first as a professor, and beginning in 1832, an administrator
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Electricity
Electricity
Electricity
is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge. Although initially considered a phenomenon separate from magnetism, since the development of Maxwell's equations, both are recognized as part of a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others. The presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field. The movement of electric charges is an electric current and produces a magnetic field. When a charge is placed in a location with a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb's law. Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge
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Dulong-Petit Law
The Dulong–Petit law, a thermodynamic proposed in 1819 by French physicists Pierre Louis Dulong
Pierre Louis Dulong
and Alexis Thérèse Petit, states the classical expression for the molar specific [heat capacity] of certain chemical elements. Experimentally the two scientists had found that the heat capacity per weight (the mass-specific heat capacity) for a number of elements was close to a constant value, after it had been multiplied by a number representing the presumed relative atomic weight of the element. These atomic weights had shortly before been suggested by Dalton.The molar heat capacity of most elements at 25°C is in the range between 2,8 R and 3,4 R. Plot as a function of atomic number with a y range from 22.5 to 30 J/mol K.In modern terms, Dulong and Petit found that the heat capacity of a mole of many solid elements is about 3R, where R is the modern constant called the universal gas constant
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International Standard Name Identifier
The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012
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Climatology
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category)Climatology Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal)v t e Climatology
Climatology
(from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.[1] This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth sciences. Climatology
Climatology
now includes aspects of oceanography and biogeochemistry
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers. It is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education (fr) (ABES). External links[edit]Official websiteThis article relating to library science or information science is a stub
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Joseph Fourier
Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier
Joseph Fourier
(/ˈfʊəriˌeɪ, -iər/;[1] French: [fuʁje]; 21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre
Auxerre
and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series
Fourier series
and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations. The Fourier transform
Fourier transform
and Fourier's law are also named in his honour. Fourier is also generally credited with the discovery of the greenhouse effect.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 The Analytic Theory of Heat 3 Determinate equations 4 Discovery of the greenhouse effect 5 Works 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksBiography[edit] Fourier was born at Auxerre
Auxerre
(now in the Yonne
Yonne
département of France), the son of a tailor. He was orphaned at age nine
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The Bibliothèque nationale de France
France
(BnF, English: National Library of France"; French: [bi.bli.jɔ.tɛk na.sjɔ.nal də fʁɑ̃s]) is the national library of France, located in Paris. It is the national repository of all that is published in France
France
and also holds extensive historical collections.Contents1 History 2 New buildings 3 Mission 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection 5 Digital library 6 List of directors6.1 1369–1792 6.2 1792–present7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksHistory[edit]See also: History of the Bibliothèque nationale de France (fr)The National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace
Louvre Palace
by Charles V in 1368
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Diffraction
Diffraction
Diffraction
refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the bending of light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle. In classical physics, the diffraction phenomenon is described as the interference of waves according to the Huygens–Fresnel principle. These characteristic behaviors are exhibited when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit that is comparable in size to its wavelength. Similar effects occur when a light wave travels through a medium with a varying refractive index, or when a sound wave travels through a medium with varying acoustic impedance
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Photometry (astronomy)
Photometry is a technique of astronomy concerned with measuring the flux, or intensity of an astronomical object's electromagnetic radiation.[1][2] When photometry is performed over broad wavelength bands of radiation, where not only the amount of radiation but also its spectral distribution is measured, the term spectrophotometry is used. The word is composed of the Greek affixes photo- ("light") and -metry ("measure").Contents1 Methods 2 CCD photometry2.1 Calibrations 2.2 Absolute photometry 2.3 Relative photometry 2.4 Differential photometry 2.5 Surface photometry3 Applications 4 Software 5 Organizations 6 See also 7 ReferencesMethods[edit] The methods used to perform photometry depend on the wavelength regime under study. At its most basic, photometry is conducted by gathering light in a telescope, sometimes passing it through specialized photometric optical bandpass filters, and then capturing and recording the light energy with a photosensitive instrument
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Photography
Photography
Photography
is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.[1] Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing
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Meteorology
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category)Climatology Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal)v t e Meteorology
Meteorology
is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data
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Magnetism
Magnetism
Magnetism
is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets, producing magnetic fields themselves. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic; the most common ones are iron, nickel and cobalt and their alloys. The prefix ferro- refers to iron, because permanent magnetism was first observed in lodestone, a form of natural iron ore called magnetite, Fe3O4. Although ferromagnetism is responsible for most of the effects of magnetism encountered in everyday life, all other materials are influenced to some extent by a magnetic field, by several other types of magnetism
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Paris
Paris
(French pronunciation: ​[paʁi] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city in France, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015).[5] The city is a commune and department, and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de-
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Optics
Optics
Optics
is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.[1] Optics
Optics
usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties.[1] Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical electromagnetic description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice. Practical optics is usually done using simplified models. The most common of these, geometric optics, treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces
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Joseph Stefan
Josef Stefan
Josef Stefan
(Slovene: Jožef Štefan; 24 March 1835 – 7 January 1893) was an ethnic Carinthian Slovene
Carinthian Slovene
physicist, mathematician, and poet of the Austrian Empire.Contents1 Life and work 2 Work 3 Eponymous terms 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksLife and work[edit] Stefan was born in an outskirt village of St. Peter (Slovene: Sveti Peter; today a district of Klagenfurt) in the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(now in Austria) to father Aleš (Aleksander) Stefan, born in 1805, and mother Marija Startinik, born 1815. His parents, both ethnic Slovenes, married when Josef was eleven. The Stefans were a modest family. His father was a milling assistant and mother served as a maidservant. Stefan's mother died in 1863 and his father in 1872. Stefan attended elementary school in Klagenfurt, where he showed his talent
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