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Claude-Louis Navier
CLAUDE-LOUIS NAVIER (born CLAUDE LOUIS MARIE HENRI NAVIER; French: ; 10 February 1785 – 21 August 1836), was a French engineer and physicist who specialized in mechanics. The Navier–Stokes equations
Navier–Stokes equations
are named after him and George Gabriel Stokes . BIOGRAPHYAfter the death of his father in 1793, Navier's mother left his education in the hands of his uncle Émiland Gauthey , an engineer with the Corps of Bridges and Roads (Corps des Ponts et Chaussées). In 1802, Navier enrolled at the École polytechnique
École polytechnique
, and in 1804 continued his studies at the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées , from which he graduated in 1806. He eventually succeeded his uncle as Inspecteur general at the Corps des Ponts et Chaussées
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Second Moment Of Area
The 2ND MOMENT OF AREA, also known as MOMENT OF INERTIA OF PLANE AREA, AREA MOMENT OF INERTIA, or SECOND AREA MOMENT, is a geometrical property of an area which reflects how its points are distributed with regard to an arbitrary axis. The second moment of area is typically denoted with either an I {displaystyle I} for an axis that lies in the plane or with a J {displaystyle J} for an axis perpendicular to the plane. In both cases, it is calculated with a multiple integral over the object in question. Its unit of dimension when working with the International System of Units
International System of Units
is meters to the fourth power, m 4. In the field of structural engineering , the second moment of area of the cross-section of a beam is an important property used in the calculation of the beam's deflection and the calculation of stress caused by a moment applied to the beam
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John J. O'Connor (mathematician)
The MACTUTOR HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS ARCHIVE is a website maintained by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson and hosted by the University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews
in Scotland
Scotland
. It contains detailed biographies on many historical and contemporary mathematicians , as well as information on famous curves and various topics in the history of mathematics . The History of Mathematics archive was an outgrowth of MATHEMATICAL MACTUTOR SYSTEM, a HyperCard
HyperCard
database by the same authors, which won them the European Academic Software award in 1994. In the same year, they founded their web site. As of 2015 it has biographies on over 2800 mathematicians and scientists. In 2015, O'Connor and Robertson won the Hirst Prize of the London Mathematical Society for their work
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Edmund F. Robertson
EDMUND FREDERICK ROBERTSON FRSE (born 1 June 1943 in St Andrews
St Andrews
, Scotland
Scotland
) is a Professor
Professor
emeritus of pure mathematics at the University of St Andrews
St Andrews
. WORKRobertson is one of the creators of the noted MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive along with John J. O\'Connor . He has written over one hundred research articles, mainly in the theory of groups and semigroups . He is the author or co-author of seventeen textbooks. Robertson obtained a B.Sc. degree at the University of St Andrews
St Andrews
in 1965. He subsequently went to the University of Warwick where he received an M.Sc. degree in 1966 and a Ph.D. degree in 1968. In 1998 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (FRSE)
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Elastic Modulus
An ELASTIC MODULUS (also known as MODULUS OF ELASTICITY) is a number that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it. The elastic modulus of an object is defined as the slope of its stress–strain curve in the elastic deformation region: A stiffer material will have a higher elastic modulus. An elastic modulus has the form: = def stress strain {displaystyle lambda {stackrel {text{def}}{=}} {frac {text{stress}}{text{strain}}}} where stress is the force causing the deformation divided by the area to which the force is applied and strain is the ratio of the change in some parameter caused by the deformation to the original value of the parameter. If stress is measured in pascals , then since strain is a dimensionless quantity, the units of λ will be pascals as well
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Galileo Galilei
GALILEO GALILEI (Italian: ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath . Galileo is a central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and in the transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution . Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system . He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism because of the absence of an observed stellar parallax
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Augustin Louis Cauchy
Baron
Baron
AUGUSTIN-LOUIS CAUCHY FRS FRSE
FRSE
(French: ; 21 August 1789 – 23 May 1857) was a French mathematician and physicist who made pioneering contributions to analysis . He was one of the first to state and prove theorems of calculus rigorously, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra of earlier authors. He almost singlehandedly founded complex analysis and the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra . A profound mathematician, Cauchy had a great influence over his contemporaries and successors. His writings range widely in mathematics and mathematical physics . "More concepts and theorems have been named for Cauchy than for any other mathematician (in elasticity alone there are sixteen concepts and theorems named for Cauchy)." Cauchy was a prolific writer; he wrote approximately eight hundred research articles and five complete textbooks
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Mechanics
MECHANICS (Greek μηχανική) is an area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements , and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment. The scientific discipline has its origins in Ancient Greece with the writings of Aristotle and Archimedes (see History of classical mechanics and Timeline of classical mechanics ). During the early modern period , scientists such as Galileo , Kepler , and Newton , laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics . It is a branch of classical physics that deals with particles that are either at rest or are moving with velocities significantly less than the speed of light. It can also be defined as a branch of science which deals with the motion of and forces on objects
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MacTutor History Of Mathematics Archive
The MACTUTOR HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS ARCHIVE is a website maintained by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson and hosted by the University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews
in Scotland
Scotland
. It contains detailed biographies on many historical and contemporary mathematicians , as well as information on famous curves and various topics in the history of mathematics . The History of Mathematics archive was an outgrowth of MATHEMATICAL MACTUTOR SYSTEM, a HyperCard
HyperCard
database by the same authors, which won them the European Academic Software award in 1994. In the same year, they founded their web site. As of 2015 it has biographies on over 2800 mathematicians and scientists. In 2015, O'Connor and Robertson won the Hirst Prize of the London Mathematical Society for their work
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University Of St Andrews
University
University
of St AndrewsSt Mary\'s College
College
School of Medicine St Leonard\'s College
College
AFFILIATIONS Europaeum
Europaeum
Universities Scotland
Scotland
Universities UK Wallace Group SPORTS University
University
of St Andrews
St Andrews
Athletic Union WEBSITE St-Andrews.ac.ukThe UNIVERSITY OF ST ANDREWS (informally known as ST ANDREWS UNIVERSITY or simply ST ANDREWS; abbreviated as ST AND, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals ) is a British public research university in St Andrews
St Andrews
, Fife
Fife
, Scotland
Scotland

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Institute For Advanced Technology In The Humanities
Coordinates : 37°32′12.2″N 78°30′20″W / 37.536722°N 78.50556°W / 37.536722; -78.50556 THIS ARTICLE HAS MULTIPLE ISSUES. Please help IMPROVE IT or discuss these issues on the TALK PAGE . (Learn how and when to remove these template messages ) This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) The topic of this article MAY NOT MEET\'S NOTABILITY GUIDELINES FOR COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS . Please help to establish notability by citing reliable secondary sources that are independent of the topic and provide significant coverage of it beyond its mere trivial mention
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The BIBLIOTHèQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE (BNF; French: ) is the National Library of France
France
, located in Paris
Paris
. It is the national repository of all that is published in France. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 New buildings * 3 Mission * 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection * 5 Digital library * 6 Popular culture * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. Charles had received a collection of manuscripts from his predecessor, John II , and transferred them to the Louvre
Louvre
from the Palais de la Cité
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The SYSTèME UNIVERSITAIRE DE DOCUMENTATION or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONTROL NUMBER (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names. The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
prepared cards of bibliographic information for their library catalog and would sell duplicate sets of the cards to other libraries for use in their catalogs
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International Standard Name Identifier
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NAME IDENTIFIER (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012. The ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 ( TC 46/SC 9 ) is responsible for the development of the standard. ISNI can be used to disambiguate names that might otherwise be confused, and links the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries
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