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Classical Revival
Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
(from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin
Latin
classicus, "of the highest rank")[1] is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity. Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
was born in Rome
Rome
in the mid-18th century, at the time of the rediscovery of Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum, but its popularity spread all over Europe as a generation of European art students finished their Grand Tour
Grand Tour
and returned from Italy to their home countries with newly rediscovered Greco-Roman ideals.[2][3] The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism
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Neoclassical (other)
Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, and architecture beginning in the 17th century
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Judgement Of Paris
Setting: Troy
Troy
(modern Hisarlik, Turkey) Period: Bronze Age Traditional dating: c. 1194–1184 BC Modern dating: c
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Antiquities
Antiquities
Antiquities
are objects from Antiquity, especially the civilizations of the Mediterranean: the Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
of Greece and Rome, Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and the other Ancient Near Eastern cultures. Artifacts from earlier periods such as the Mesolithic, and other civilizations from Asia and elsewhere may also be covered by the term
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English Literature
This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States. However, until the early 19th century, it only deals with the literature of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Ireland. It does not include literature written in the other languages of Britain. The English language
English language
has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years.[1] The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the fifth century, are called Old English
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Augustan Literature
Augustan literature
Augustan literature
(sometimes referred to misleadingly as Georgian literature) is a style of British literature
British literature
produced during the reigns of Queen Anne, King George I, and George II in the first half of the 18th century and ending in the 1740s, with the deaths of Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope
and Jonathan Swift, in 1744 and 1745, respectively
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Classical Music
Classical music
Classical music
is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods.[1] The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period
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Neoclassicism (music)
Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the interwar period, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint. As such, neoclassicism was a reaction against the unrestrained emotionalism and perceived formlessness of late Romanticism, as well as a "call to order" after the experimental ferment of the first two decades of the twentieth century
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Christoph Willibald Gluck
Christoph Willibald ( Ritter
Ritter
von) Gluck (German: [ˈkʁɪstɔf ˈvɪlɪbalt ˈɡlʊk]; 2 July 1714 – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera
French opera
in the early classical period. Born in the Upper Palatinate
Upper Palatinate
(now part of Germany) and raised in Bohemia,[1] he gained prominence at the Habsburg court at Vienna, where he brought about the practical reform of opera's dramaturgical practices for which many intellectuals had been campaigning. With a series of radical new works in the 1760s, among them Orfeo ed Euridice and Alceste, he broke the stranglehold that Metastasian opera seria had enjoyed for much of the century. The strong influence of French opera
French opera
in these works encouraged Gluck to move to Paris, which he did in November 1773
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Alceste (Gluck)
Alceste, Wq. 37 (the later French version is Wq. 44), is an opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck
Christoph Willibald Gluck
from 1767. The libretto (in Italian) was written by Ranieri de' Calzabigi and based on the play Alcestis
Alcestis
by Euripides
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Ornamentation (music)
In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes—typically, added notes—that are not essential to carry the overall line of the melody (or harmony), but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line (or harmony), provide added interest and variety, and give the performer the opportunity to add expressiveness to a song or piece. Many ornaments are performed as "fast notes" around a central, main note. There are many types of ornaments, ranging from the addition of a single, short grace note before a main note to the performance of a virtuostic and flamboyant trill. The amount of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive (it was often extensive in the Baroque
Baroque
period, from 1600 to 1750) to relatively little or even none
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Greek Tragedy
Greek tragedy
Greek tragedy
is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
and Asia Minor. It reached its most significant form in Athens
Athens
in the 5th century BC, the works of which are sometimes called Attic tragedy. Greek tragedy is widely believed to be an extension of the ancient rites carried out in honor of Dionysus, and it heavily influenced the theatre of Ancient Rome and the Renaissance. Tragic plots were most often based upon myths from the oral traditions of archaic epics. In tragic theatre, however, these narratives were presented by actors
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Anton Raphael Mengs
Anton Raphael Mengs
Anton Raphael Mengs
(March 22, 1728[1] – June 29, 1779) was a German Bohemian painter, active in Rome, Madrid
Madrid
and Saxony, who became one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting.Contents1 Biography 2 Career2.1 Theoretical writings3 Selected works 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Sources 8 External linksBiography[edit]Self-portrait, 1744Mengs was born in 1728 at Ústí nad Labem
Ústí nad Labem
(German: Aussig) in Bohemia, the son of Ismael Mengs (da), a Danish painter who eventually established himself at Dresden. His elder sister, Therese Maron was also a painter, as was their younger sister Julia. In 1741 Mengs's father took him from Dresden
Dresden
to Rome. In 1749 he was appointed first painter to Frederick Augustus, elector of Saxony, but this did not prevent him from continuing to spend much of his time in Rome
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Catherine The Great
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress
Empress
of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader. She came to power following a coup d'état when her husband, Peter III, was assassinated. Under her reign, Russia was revitalised; it grew larger and stronger, and was recognised as one of the great powers of Europe. In her accession to power and her rule of the empire, Catherine often relied on her noble favourites, most notably Grigory Orlov
Grigory Orlov
and Grigory Potemkin
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Johann Joachim Winckelmann
Johann Joachim Winckelmann
Johann Joachim Winckelmann
(/ˈvɪŋkəlˌmɑːn/;[2] German: [ˈvɪŋkəlman]; 9 December 1717 – 8 June 1768) was a German art historian and archaeologist.[3] He was a pioneering Hellenist who first articulated the difference between Greek, Greco-Roman and Roman art. "The prophet and founding hero of modern archaeology",[4] Winckelmann was one of the founders of scientific archaeology and first applied the categories of style on a large, systematic basis to the history of art. Many consider him the father of the discipline of art history.[5] He was one of the first to separate Greek Art into periods, and time classifications.[6] His would be the decisive influence on the rise of the neoclassical movement during the late 18th century. His writings influenced not only a new science of archaeology and art history but Western painting, sculpture, literature and even philosophy
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Louis XIV Of France
Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the God-Given (Louis Dieudonné), Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France
King of France
from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting at the age of 4, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history.[1][2] In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power.[3] Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.[4] An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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