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Civil Rights Movement
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms)[b] was a decades long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans
African Americans
that other Americans
Americans
already held. With roots starting in the Reconstruction era
Reconstruction era
during the late 19th century, the movement resulted in the largest legislative impacts after the direct actions and grassroots protests organized from the mid-1950s until 1968
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Private Foundations
A private foundation is a legal entity set up by an individual, a family or a group of individuals, for a purpose such as philanthropy or other legal economic object. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is the largest private foundation in the U.S. with over $38 billion in assets.[1] However, most private foundations are much smaller. Approximately two-thirds of the more than 84,000 foundations which file with the IRS, in 2008, have less than $1 million in assets, and 93% have less than $10 million in assets.[1] In aggregate, private foundations in the U.S. control over $628 billion in assets[1] and made more than $44 billion in charitable contributions in 2007.[2] Unlike a charitable foundation, a private foundation does not generally solicit funds from the public. And a private foundation does not have the legal requirements and reporting responsibilities of a registered, non-profit or charitable foundation
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Fair Housing Act
The Fair Housing Act is a federal act in the United States intended to protect the buyer or renter of a dwelling from seller or landlord discrimination. Its primary prohibition makes it unlawful to refuse to sell, rent to, or negotiate with any person because of that person's inclusion in a protected class.[1] The goal is a unitary housing market in which a person's background (as opposed to financial resources) does not arbitrarily restrict access. Calls for open housing were issued early in the twentieth century, but it was not until after World War II that concerted efforts to achieve it were undertaken. The legislation was the culmination of a civil rights campaign against housing discrimination in the United States and was approved, at the urging of President Lyndon B. Johnson, only one week after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. The Fair Housing Act was enacted as Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, and codified at 42 U.S.C
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United States Constitution
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Congressional districts
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Reconstruction Amendments
The Reconstruction Amendments
Reconstruction Amendments
are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution,[1] adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War. The last time the Constitution had been amended was with the Twelfth Amendment more than 60 years earlier in 1804. The Reconstruction amendments were important in implementing the Reconstruction of the American South after the war
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Abolitionism In The United States
Abolitionism
Abolitionism
in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War
American Civil War
to end slavery in the United States. In the Americas and western Europe, abolitionism was a movement to end the Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
and set slaves free. In the 17th century, English Quakers
Quakers
and Evangelicals condemned slavery as un-Christian. At that time, most slaves were Africans, but thousands of Native Americans were also enslaved. In the 18th century, as many as six million Africans were transported to the Americas as slaves, at least a third of them on British ships to North America
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American Civil War
Union victoryDissolution of the Confederate States U.S. territorial integrity preserved Slavery abolished Beginning of the Reconstruction EraBelligerents United States  Confederate StatesCommanders and leaders Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman David Farragut George B. McClellan Henry Halleck George Meade and others Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee  J. E. Johnston  G. T. Beauregard  A. S
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Alabama
As of 2010[1]English 95.1% Spanish 3.1%Demonym Alabamian[2]Capital MontgomeryLargest city BirminghamLargest metro Birmingham metropolitan areaArea Ranked 30th • Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km2) • Width 190 miles (305 km) • Length 330 miles (531 km) • % water 3.20 • Latitude 30° 11′ N to 35° N • Longitude 84° 53′ W to 88° 28′ WPopulation Ranked 24th • Total 4,863,300 (2016 est.)[3] • Density 94.7 (2011 est.)/sq mi  (36.5 (2011 est.)/km2) Ranked 27th • Median household income $44,509[4] (47th)Elevation • Highest point Mount Cheaha[5][6][7] 2,413 ft (735.5 m) • Mean 500 ft  (150 m) • Lowest point Gulf of Mexico[6] Sea levelBefore statehood
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Civil Rights Movement (other)
The Civil rights movement was a multi-decade long movement encompassing multiple nationwide anti-racial discrimination actions and protests from 1865-1970
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African Americans
Origins of the civil rights movement
Origins of the civil rights movement
· Civil rights movement
Civil rights movement
· Black Power movementPost–civil rights era New Great MigrationCultureStudies Art Business history Black conductors Black mecca Black sc
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United States Department Of Housing And Urban Development
The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (Commonly known as HUD) is a Cabinet department in the Executive branch of the United States federal government. Although its beginnings were in the House and Home Financing Agency, it was founded as a Cabinet department in 1965, as part of the "Great Society" program of President Lyndon Johnson, to develop and execute policies on housing and metropolises.Contents1 History 2 Agencies2.1 Agencies 2.2 Offices 2.3 Corporation3 Organizational structure3.1 Major programs 3.2 Office of Inspector General 3.3 Budget and staffing4 Operations 5 Criticisms 6 Related legislation 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit] The department was established on September 9, 1965, when Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act[1] into law. It stipulated that the department was to be created no later than November 8, sixty days following the date of enactment
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Office Of Fair Housing And Equal Opportunity
The Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO) is an agency within the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. FHEO is responsible for administering and enforcing federal fair housing laws and establishing policies that make sure all Americans have equal access to the housing of their choice.Contents1 Mission 2 History 3 Fair Housing Laws3.1 Fair Housing-Related Presidential Executive Orders4 Fair Housing Hotline 5 Work 6 Fair Housing Month 7 Fair Housing Programs 8 Section 3 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksMission[edit] The mission of FHEO is to create equal housing opportunities for all persons living in America by administering laws that prohibit discrimination in housing on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability, and familial status.[1] History[edit]President Johnson signing the Civil Rights Act of 1968The Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity was created by t
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Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a federal agency that administers and enforces civil rights laws against workplace discrimination. The EEOC investigates discrimination complaints based on an individual's race, children, national origin, religion, sex, age, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, and retaliation for reporting, participating in, and/or opposing a discriminatory practice.[3]Contents1 History 2 Staffing, workload, and backlog 3 Race and ethnicity 4 Investigative compliance policy 5 Increase in disability-based charges 6 Home Depot disability discrimination suit 7 2012 profile 8 Criticism 9 Commissioners 10 Chairs 11 See also 12 References 13 External linksHistory[edit] On March 6, 1963, President John F
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Twenty-fourth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-fourth Amendment (Amendment XXIV) of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. The amendment was proposed by Congress to the states on August 27, 1962, and was ratified by the states on January 23, 1964. Southern states of the former Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
adopted poll taxes in laws of the late 19th century and new constitutions from 1890 to 1908, after the Democratic Party had generally regained control of state legislatures decades after the end of Reconstruction, as a measure to prevent African Americans
African Americans
and often poor whites from voting. Use of the poll taxes by states was held to be constitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
in the 1937 decision Breedlove v
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United States Department Of Justice
The United States
United States
Department of Justice
Justice
(DOJ), also known as the Justice
Justice
Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
administration. In its early years, the DOJ vigorously prosecuted Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
members. The Department of Justice
Justice
administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration
Drug Enforcement Administration
(DEA)
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Civil Disobedience
Civil disobedience
Civil disobedience
is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws of the state, and/or demands, orders, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Civil disobedience is sometimes defined as having to be nonviolent to be called civil disobedience
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