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Citrinitas
Citrinitas, sometimes referred to as xanthosis,[1] is a term given by alchemists to "yellowness." It is one of the four major stages of the alchemical magnum opus, and literally referred to "transmutation of silver into gold" or "yellowing of the lunar consciousness."[citation needed] In alchemical philosophy, citrinitas stood for the dawning of the "solar light" inherent in one's being, and that the reflective "lunar or soul light" was no longer necessary. The other three alchemical stages were nigredo (blackness), albedo (whiteness), and rubedo (redness). Psychologist Carl Jung
Carl Jung
is credited with interpreting the alchemical process as analogous to modern-day psychoanalysis
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Jābir Ibn Hayyān
Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān
Jābir ibn Hayyān
(Arabic: جابر بن حیان‎, Persian: جابر بن حیان‬‎, often given the nisbas al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721 – c. 815),[6] also known by the Latinization Geber, was a polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician. Born and educated in Tus, he later traveled to Kufa
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Classical Planets In Western Alchemy
In classical antiquity, the seven classical planets are the seven non-fixed astronomical objects in the sky visible to the naked eye: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The word planet comes from the Greek word πλανήτης, planētēs "wanderer" (short for asteres planetai "wandering stars"), expressing the fact that these objects move across the celestial sphere relative to the fixed stars.[1] The term planet in modern terminology is only applied to natural satellites orbiting the Sun, so that of the seven classical planets, five are planets in the modern sense – the five easily visible to the unaided eye.Contents1 Babylonian astronomy 2 Symbols 3 Planetary hours 4 Alchemy 5 Contemporary astrology5.1 Western astrology 5.2 Indian astrology6 Planets in Chinese astronomy 7 Naked-eye planets 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksBabylonian astronomy[edit] Further information: Babylonian astronomy Babylonians recognized seven planets
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Calcination
Authorities differ on the meaning of calcination (also referred to as calcining). The IUPAC
IUPAC
defines it as 'heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen'.[1] However, calcination is also used to mean a thermal treatment process in the absence or limited supply of air or oxygen applied to ores and other solid materials to bring about a thermal decomposition
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Distillation
Distillation
Distillation
is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation. Distillation
Distillation
may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of the mixture. In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not a chemical reaction. Distillation
Distillation
has many applications
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Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen. The products are organic acids, gases, or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. The science of fermentation is known as zymology. In microorganisms, fermentation is the primary means of producing ATP by the degradation of organic nutrients anaerobically.[1] Humans have used fermentation to produce drinks and beverages since the Neolithic age. For example, fermentation is used for preservation in a process that produces lactic acid as found in such sour foods as pickled cucumbers, kimchi and yogurt (see fermentation in food processing), as well as for producing alcoholic beverages such as wine (see fermentation in winemaking) and beer
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Spagyric
A spagyric /spəˈdʒɪrɪk/ is an herbal medicine produced by alchemical procedures. These procedures involve fermentation, distillation, and extraction of mineral components from the ash of the plant. These processes were in use in medieval alchemy generally for the separation and purification of metals from ores (see Calcination), and salts from brines and other aqueous solutions.Contents1 Etymology 2 In practice 3 See also 4 Bibliography 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The word comes from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σπάω spao "to draw out" and ἀγείρω ageiro "to gather".[1][2] It is a term probably first coined by Paracelsus
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Filtration
Filtration
Filtration
is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass. The fluid that passes through is called the filtrate.[1] In physical filters oversize solids in the fluid are retained and in biological filters particulates are trapped and ingested and metabolites are retained and removed. However, the separation is not complete; solids will be contaminated with some fluid and filtrate will contain fine particles (depending on the pore size, filter thickness and biological activity). Filtration
Filtration
occurs both in nature and in engineered systems; there are biological, geological, and industrial forms
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Rasayana
Rasāyana, रसायन is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word, with the literal meaning: Path (āyana) of essence (rasa). It is a term that in early ayurvedic medicine means the science of lengthening lifespan, and in later (post 8th-century) works sometimes refers to Indian alchemy. The name of the science of Indian alchemy or proto-chemistry, is more generally "The Science of Mercury", or Rasaśāstra, रसशास्त्र in Sanskrit, Nepali, Marathi, Hindi, Kannada
Kannada
and several other languages. Early Indian alchemical texts discuss the use of prepared forms of mercury or cinnabar (see samskaras)
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Chinese Alchemy
Chinese alchemy
Chinese alchemy
is an ancient Chinese scientific and technological approach to alchemy, a part of the larger tradition of Taoist body-spirit cultivation developed from the traditional Chinese understanding of medicine and the body. According to original texts such as the Cantong qi, the body is understood as the focus of cosmological processes summarized in the five agents, or wu xing, the observation and cultivation of which leads the practitioner into greater alignment with the operation of the Tao, the great cosmological principle of everything
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Alchemical Symbol
Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century. Although notation like this was mostly standardized, style and symbol varied between alchemists, so this page lists the most common.Contents1 Three primes 2 Four basic elements 3 Seven planetary metals 4 Mundane elements 5 Alchemical compounds 6 Alchemical processes 7 Units 8 Unicode 9 References 10 External linksThree primes[edit] According to Paracelsus
Paracelsus
(1493–1541), the three primes or tria prima – of which material substances are immediately composed – are:[1][2]Mercury (Mind)
Salt (base matter or body) 🜔
🜔
Sulfur
Sulfur
(Spirit) 🜍
🜍
Four basic elements[edit] Main article: Classical elements Western alchemy makes use of the Hellenic elements
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Solution
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. The mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is commonly the case
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Sublimation (phase Transition)
Sublimation is the phase transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.[1] Sublimation is an endothermic process that occurs at temperatures and pressures below a substance's triple point in its phase diagram, which corresponds to the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid. The reverse process of sublimation is deposition or desublimation, in which a substance passes directly from a gas to a solid phase.[2] Sublimation has also been used as a generic term to describe a solid-to-gas transition (sublimation) followed by a gas-to-solid transition (deposition).[3] At normal pressures, most chemical compounds and elements possess three different states at different temperatures. In these cases, the transition from the solid to the gaseous state requires an intermediate liquid state. The pressure referred to is the partial pressure of the substance, not the total (e.g
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Congelation
Congelation is the process by which something congeals, or thickens. This increase in viscosity can be achieved through a reduction in temperature or through chemical reactions. Sometimes the increase in viscosity is great enough to crystallize or solidify the substance in question. In alchemy, congelation is one of the 12 vital processes for transformation to occur.This chemical reaction article is a stub
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Agastya
Agastya
Agastya
was a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.[3][4] In the Indian traditions, he is a noted recluse and an influential scholar in diverse languages of the Indian subcontinent. He and his wife Lopamudra
Lopamudra
are the celebrated authors of hymns 1.165 to 1.191 in the Sanskrit text Rigveda
Rigveda
and other Vedic literature.[4][5][6] Agastya
Agastya
appears in numerous itihasas and puranas (roughly, mythologies and regional epics) including the major Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata.[6][7] He is one of the seven or eight most revered rishis in the Vedic texts,[8] as well as a subject of reverence for being one of the Tamil Siddhar
Siddhar
in the Shaivism
Shaivism
tradition
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Arthur Dee
Arthur Dee (13 July 1579 – September or October 1651) was a physician and alchemist. He was the eldest son of John Dee by his third wife, Jane, daughter of Bartholomew Fromond of East Cheam, Surrey, and was born at Mortlake
Mortlake
on 13 July 1579. He accompanied his father in travels through Germany, Poland, and Bohemia. After his return to England
England
he was placed at Westminster School, 3 May 1592, under the tuition of Edward Grant and Camden. Anthony Wood was informed that he subsequently studied at Oxford, but he took no degree, and his college is unknown. Settling in London with the intention of practising 'physic' (medicine) he exhibited at the door of his house a list of medicines which were said to be certain cures for many diseases. The censors of the College of Physicians summoned him to appear before them; but it is not known with what outcome
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