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Citizen
CITIZENSHIP is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or part of a nation . A person may have multiple citizenships and a person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless . NATIONALITY is often used as a synonym for citizenship in English – notably in international law – although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a person's membership of a nation (a large ethnic group ). In some countries, e.g. the United States , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, nationality and citizenship can have different meanings (for more information, see Nationality versus citizenship )
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Political Prisoner
A POLITICAL PRISONER is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment. The term is used by persons or groups challenging the legitimacy of the detention of a prisoner. Supporters of the term define a political prisoner as someone who is imprisoned for his or her participation in political activity . If a political offense was not the official reason for the prisoner's detention, the term would imply that the detention was motivated by the prisoner's politics. CONTENTS* 1 Various definitions * 1.1 Amnesty International * 1.2 Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe * 1.3 Other definitions * 2 Notable groups of political prisoners * 3 Famous historic political prisoners * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading VARIOUS DEFINITIONSSome understand the term political prisoner narrowly, equating it with the term prisoner of conscience (POC)
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Common Law
COMMON LAW (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law , or case law ) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals. The defining characteristic of “common law” is that it arises as precedent. In cases where the parties disagree on what the law is, a common law court looks to past precedential decisions of relevant courts, and synthesizes the principles of those past cases as applicable to the current facts. If a similar dispute has been resolved in the past, the court is usually bound to follow the reasoning used in the prior decision (a principle known as stare decisis )
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Political Asylum
The RIGHT OF ASYLUM (sometimes called RIGHT OF POLITICAL ASYLUM, from the ancient Greek word ἄσυλον ) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by their own country may be protected by another sovereign authority , such as another country or church official , who in medieval times could offer sanctuary. This right was already recognized by the Egyptians , the Greeks , and the Hebrews
Hebrews
, from whom it was adopted into Western tradition . René Descartes fled to the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Voltaire
Voltaire
to England
England
, and Thomas Hobbes to France
France
, because each state offered protection to persecuted foreigners. The Egyptians, Greeks, and Hebrews
Hebrews
recognized a religious "right of asylum," protecting criminals (or those accused of crime) from legal action to some extent
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Civil Law (legal System)
CIVIL LAW, CIVILIAN LAW, or ROMAN LAW is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law
Roman law
, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law. This can be contrasted with common law systems whose intellectual framework comes from judge-made decisional law which gives precedential authority to prior court decisions on the principle that it is unfair to treat similar facts differently on different occasions (doctrine of judicial precedent , or stare decisis ). Historically, a civil law is the group of legal ideas and systems ultimately derived from the Codex Justinianus , but heavily overlaid by Napoleonic , Germanic , canonical , feudal, and local practices, as well as doctrinal strains such as natural law , codification, and legal positivism
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Sex Equality
GENDER EQUALITY, also known as SEXUAL EQUALITY, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender. " Gender
Gender
equality, equality between men and women, entails the concept that all human beings, both men and women, are free to develop their personal abilities and make choices without the limitations set by stereotypes, rigid gender roles and prejudices. Gender
Gender
equality means that the different behaviour, aspirations and needs of women and men are considered, valued and favoured equally. It does not mean that women and men have to become the same, but that their rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or female
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Sovereign State
A SOVEREIGN STATE is, in international law , a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law
International law
defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government , and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states . It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state . The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact . While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states , unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states
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Custom (law)
CUSTOM in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting. A claim can be carried out in defense of "what has always been done and accepted by law." Related is the idea of PRESCRIPTION; a right enjoyed through long custom rather than positive law. CUSTOMARY LAW (also, CONSUETUDINARY or UNOFFICIAL LAW) exists where: * a certain legal practice is observed and * the relevant actors consider it to be law (opinio juris ).Most customary laws deal with standards of community that have been long-established in a given locale. However the term can also apply to areas of international law where certain standards have been nearly universal in their acceptance as correct bases of action - in example, laws against piracy or slavery (see hostis humani generis )
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Nativism (politics)
NATIVISM is the political policy or practice of preserving or reviving an indigenous culture. However, this is currently more commonly described as an anti-immigrant position considering the policy to be one of protecting native interests against those of immigrants. In scholarly studies nativism is a standard technical term. The term is typically not accepted by those who hold this political view, however. Dindar (2010) wrote "nativists... do not consider themselves as nativists. For them it is a negative term and they rather consider themselves as 'Patriots'". According to Fetzer (2000), opposition to immigration commonly arises in many countries because of issues of national, cultural, and religious identity
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Public International Law
PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW concerns the structure and conduct of sovereign states ; analogous entities, such as the Holy See ; and intergovernmental organizations . To a lesser degree, international law also may affect multinational corporations and individuals , an impact increasingly evolving beyond domestic legal interpretation and enforcement. Public international law
Public international law
has increased in use and importance vastly over the twentieth century, due to the increase in global trade , environmental deterioration on a worldwide scale, awareness of human rights violations, rapid and vast increases in international transportation and a boom in global communications. The field of study combines two main branches: the law of nations (jus gentium ) and international agreements and conventions (jus inter gentes ). The Italian jurist Sir Alberico Gentili
Alberico Gentili
was the first to write on public international law
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Arab Countries
The ARAB WORLD (Arabic : العالم العربي‎‎ al-ʿālam al-ʿarabī; formally: ARAB HOMELAND, الوطن العربي al-wațan al-ʿarabī), also known as the ARAB NATION (الأمة العربية al-ʾummah al-ʿarabīah) or the ARAB STATES, currently consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League . These Arab states occupy an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the west to the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the north to the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
in the southeast. The contemporary Arab world
Arab world
has a combined population of around 422 million inhabitants, over half of whom are under 25 years of age
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Solon
SOLON (Greek : Σόλων Sólōn, ; c. 638 – c. 558 BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker , and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic, and moral decline in archaic Athens
Athens
. His reforms failed in the short term, yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy. He wrote poetry for pleasure, as patriotic propaganda , and in defense of his constitutional reforms. Modern knowledge of Solon
Solon
is limited by the fact that his works only survive in fragments and appear to feature interpolations by later authors, and by the general paucity of documentary and archaeological evidence covering Athens
Athens
in the early 6th century BC
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Political Freedom
POLITICAL FREEDOM (also known as a political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies. Political freedom was described as freedom from oppression or coercion, the absence of disabling conditions for an individual and the fulfillment of enabling conditions, or the absence of life conditions of compulsion, e.g. economic compulsion, in a society. Although political freedom is often interpreted negatively as the freedom from unreasonable external constraints on action, it can also refer to the positive exercise of rights, capacities and possibilities for action, and the exercise of social or group rights. The concept can also include freedom from "internal" constraints on political action or speech (e.g. social conformity , consistency, or "inauthentic" behaviour)
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Geoffrey Hosking
GEOFFREY ALAN HOSKING OBE FBA FRHistS (born 28 April 1942) is a British historian of Russia
Russia
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and formerly Leverhulme Research Professor of Russian History at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES) at University College, London . He also co-founded Nightline . Born in Troon
Troon
, Ayrshire
Ayrshire
, Scotland, Hosking studied Russian at King\'s College, Cambridge , earning an MA, before studying Russian history at Moscow State University
Moscow State University
. He then studied European history at St. Antony\'s College, Oxford , before earning a PhD in modern Russian history at Cambridge
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Ancient Greece
ANCIENT GREECE was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece , Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin . This was followed by the period of Classical Greece , an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars , lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia , Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea
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Barbarians
A BARBARIAN is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive . The designation is usually applied as generalization based on a popular stereotype ; barbarians can be any member of a nation judged by some to be less civilized or orderly (such as a tribal society ), but may also be part of a certain "primitive" cultural group (such as nomads ) or social class (such as bandits ) both within and outside one's own nation. Alternatively, they may instead be admired and romanticised as noble savages . In idiomatic or figurative usage, a "barbarian" may also be an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, warlike, and insensitive person
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