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Citadel Of Salah Ed-Din
Limestone UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage SiteType CulturalCriteria ii, viDesignated 2006 (30th session)Part of Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-DinReference no. 1229State Party  SyriaRegion Arab StatesThe Citadel of Salah Ed-Din
Citadel of Salah Ed-Din
(Arabic: قلعة صلاح الدين‎, Qal'at Salah al-Din), also known as Sahyun or Saladin
Saladin
Castle, is a medieval castle in northwestern Syria. It is located 7 km east of Al-Haffah
Al-Haffah
town and 30 km east of the city of Latakia, in high mountainous terrain on a ridge between two deep ravines and surrounded by forest, the site has been fortified since at least the mid 10th century. In 975 the Byzantine
Byzantine
Emperor John I Tzimiskes captured the site and it remained under Byzantine
Byzantine
control until around 1108
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty in Egypt Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty in Fars Salghurid dynasty in The Levant Burid dynasty Zengid dynastyThis box:view talk editThe Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate (Arabic: سلطنة المماليك‎ Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt
Egypt
in 1517. Historians have traditionally broken the era of Mamlūk rule into two periods—one covering 1250–1382, the other, 1382–1517. Western historians call the former the "Baḥrī" period and the latter the "Burjī" due to the political dominance of the regimes known by these names during the respective eras
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First Crusade
CrusadersKingdom of FranceBlois Toulouse Boulogne Flanders Normandy Le Puy-en-Velay Vermandois BrittanyHoly Roman EmpireDuchy of Lower Lorraine Republic of GenoaSicily (Taranto) Byzantine Empire Armenian CiliciaMuslim forcesSeljuk Sultanate Danishmends Fatimid Caliphate Abbasid CaliphateCommanders and leadersImperial Contingent:Godfrey of Bouillon Baldwin of BoulogneSouthern French Contingent:Raymond IV of Toulouse Adhemar of Le PuyNorthern French Contingent:Hugh I of Vermandois Stephen II of Blois Robert II of Flanders Robert II of NormandyNorman-Italian ContingentBohemond of Taranto Tancred of Hauteville Richard of SalernoEastern Leaders:Alexios I Komnenos Tatikios Manuel Boutoumites Constantine of ArmeniaSeljuq Empire:Kilij Arslan I Yaghi-Siyan Kerbogha Duqaq Fakhr al-Mulk RadwanDanishmendsGhazi ibn DanishmendFatimidsIftikhar ad-Daula Al-Afdal ShahanshahStrengthCrusaders: ca
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Hospitaller
The Order of Knights of the Hospital
Hospital
of Saint John of Jerusalem (Latin: Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic
Catholic
military order that became the modern Sovereign Military Order of Malta, which remains a sovereign subject of international law, as well as the Protestant members of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem
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Templars
The Crusades, including: Siege of Ascalon (1153) Battle of Montgisard
Battle of Montgisard
(1177) Battle of Marj Ayyun (1179) Battle of Hattin
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Ayyubid Dynasty
The Ayyubid dynasty
Ayyubid dynasty
(Arabic: الأيوبيون‎ al-Ayyūbīyūn; Kurdish: خانەدانی ئەیووبیان‎ Xanedana Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin[2][3][4] founded by Saladin
Saladin
and centred in Egypt. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East
Middle East
during the 12th and 13th centuries. Saladin
Saladin
had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt
Egypt
in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimids in 1171
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Az-Zahir Ghazi
Al-Malik az-Zahir Ghazi ibn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (commonly known as az-Zahir Ghazi; 1172 – 8 October 1216) was the Ayyubid emir of Aleppo
Aleppo
between 1186 and 1216.[1] He was the third son of Saladin
Saladin
and his lands included northern Syria and a small part of Mesopotamia. In 1186, when az-Zahir was 15 years of age, his father appointed him governor of Aleppo, Mosul
Mosul
and supporting areas which had recently been taken from the Zengids. At the same time his two older brothers were appointed, respectively, as governor of Syria (al-Afdal) and Egypt (al-Aziz). The lands that az-Zahir received had been under the control of his uncle, Saladin's brother al-Adil, and al-Adil took an avuncular interest in az-Zahir
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Siege Engine
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare. Some are immobile, constructed in place by sappers to attack enemy fortifications from a distance, while others have wheels to enable advancing up to the enemy fortification. There are many distinct types, such as siege towers to allow attacking soldiers to scale walls and attack the defenders, battering rams to break walls or gates, to catapults, ballistae, trebuchets and other similar constructions used to attack from a distance and fire a projectile; some complex siege engines were combinations of these types. Siege engines are fairly large constructions—from the size of a small house to a large building. From antiquity up to the development of gunpowder, they were made largely of wood, using rope or leather to help bind them, possibly with a few pieces of metal at key stress points
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Donjon
A keep (from the Middle English kype) is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by European nobility. Scholars have debated the scope of the word keep, but usually consider it to refer to large towers in castles that were fortified residences, used as a refuge of last resort should the rest of the castle fall to an adversary. The first keeps were made of timber and formed a key part of the Motte-and-Bailey castles that emerged in Normandy
Normandy
and Anjou
Anjou
during the 10th century; the design spread to England
England
as a result of the Norman invasion of 1066, and in turn spread into Wales during the second half of the 11th century and into Ireland
Ireland
in the 1170s
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Bourzey Castle
Bourzey castle is called also Mirza castle, (Arabic: قلعة ميرزا‎). It is located at the border of Syria coastal mountains and Ghab valley, 25 km away from Jisr al-Shughur, at altitude 450 m. The inscriptions and mentioning of the castle relate it to the Byzantine era in 11th century. Architecturally it has triangle shape, the western façade is 175 m, the eastern is 50 m. The southern and eastern façades are adjacent to deep gorges, but the western façade is the least steep. There is 21 towers and a small church on the surface.After Byzantine rule the castle passed to Ayyubids, who built additional towers in Arabic style. Mamelouks came later to fortify the southern towers. The castle has several arrow bastions, underground rooms, water reservoirs. The road to the castle ends at the western slope
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Emir
An emir (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/; Arabic: أمير‎ ʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is emira (أميرة ʾamīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate" is analogous to a sovereign principality.[1] Contents1 Origins 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles 3 Military ranks and titles 4 Other uses 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 NotesOrigins[edit] Emir
Emir
of Kano, Sanusi Lamido SanusiHRH Crown Prince
Prince
Farouk, amir of the Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt
and the Sudan, on ascension to the throne 1936 as HM King Farouk IAmir, meaning "lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
root a-m-r, "command"
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Baibars
Baibars
Baibars
or Baybars (Arabic: الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري‎, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt
Sultan of Egypt
in the Mamluk
Mamluk
Bahri dynasty
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Sayf Al-Dawla
Ali ibn Abu'l-Hayja 'Abdallah ibn Hamdan ibn al-Harith al-Taghlibi[note 1] (Arabic: سيف الدولة أبو الحسن ابن حمدان‎), more commonly known simply by his laqab (honorific epithet) of Sayf al-Dawla
Sayf al-Dawla
("Sword of the Dynasty"), was the founder of the Emirate of Aleppo, encompassing most of northern Syria and parts of western Jazira, and the brother of al-Hasan ibn Abdallah ibn Hamdan (better known as Nasir al-Dawla). The most prominent member of the Hamdanid dynasty,[3] Sayf al-Dawla originally served under his elder brother in the latter's attempts to establish his control over the weak Abbasid government in Baghdad during the early 940s CE. After the failure of these endeavours, the ambitious Sayf al-Dawla
Sayf al-Dawla
turned towards Syria, where he confronted the ambitions of the Ikhshidids
Ikhshidids
of Egypt
Egypt
to control the province
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Qalawun
Qalāwūn aṣ-Ṣāliḥī (Arabic: قلاوون الصالحي‎, c. 1222 – November 10, 1290) was the seventh Bahri Mamluk
Mamluk
sultan; he ruled Egypt
Egypt
from 1279 to 1290.Al-Nasir Muhammad Mosque, Cairo.Contents1 Biography and rise to power 2 Mamluk
Mamluk
diplomacy 3 Wars against the Crusader states 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksBiography and rise to power[edit] Qalawun was a Kipchak who became a mamluk (slave soldier) in the 1240s after being sold to a member of Sultan al-Kamil's household. Qalawun was known as al-Alfī ("the Thousander") because as-Salih Ayyub bought him for a thousand dinars of gold. Qalawun initially barely spoke Arabic, but he rose in power and influence and became an emir under Sultan Baibars, whose son, al-Said Barakah, was married to Qalawun's daughter. Baibars
Baibars
died in 1277 and was succeeded by Barakah
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Tripoli, Lebanon
Tripoli
Tripoli
(Arabic: طرابلس‎ / ALA-LC: Ṭarābulus;[a] Lebanese Arabic: Ṭrāblos;[3] Turkish: Trablusşam) is the largest city in northern Lebanon
Lebanon
and the second-largest city in the country. Situated 85 kilometers (53 miles) north of the capital Beirut, it is the capital of the North Governorate
North Governorate
and the Tripoli
Tripoli
District. Tripoli overlooks the eastern Mediterranean Sea, and it is the northernmost seaport in Lebanon. It holds a string of four small islands offshore, and they are also the only islands in Lebanon
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