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Citadel Of Salah Ed-Din
Limestone
Limestone
UNESCO
UNESCO
WORLD HERITAGE SITE TYPE Cultural CRITERIA ii, vi DESIGNATED 2006 (30th session ) PART OF Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din REFERENCE NO. 1229 STATE PARTY Syria
Syria
REGION Arab States The CITADEL OF SALAH ED-DIN ( Arabic
Arabic
: قلعة صلاح الدين‎‎, Qal'at Salah al-Din), also known as SAHYUN or SALADIN CASTLE, is a medieval castle in northwestern Syria
Syria
. It is located 7 km east of Al-Haffah town and 30 km east of the city of Latakia
Latakia
, in high mountainous terrain on a ridge between two deep ravines and surrounded by forest , the site has been fortified since at least the mid 10th century
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Donjon
A KEEP (from the Middle English kype) is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by European nobility . Scholars have debated the scope of the word keep, but usually consider it to refer to large towers in castles that were fortified residences, used as a refuge of last resort should the rest of the castle fall to an adversary. The first keeps were made of timber and formed a key part of the motte-and-bailey castles that emerged in Normandy
Normandy
and Anjou
Anjou
during the 10th century; the design spread to England
England
as a result of the Norman invasion of 1066, and in turn spread into Wales during the second half of the 11th century and into Ireland
Ireland
in the 1170s
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Siege Engine
A SIEGE ENGINE is a device that is designed to break or circumvent city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare . Some have been operated close to the fortifications, while others have been used to attack from a distance. From antiquity , siege engines were constructed largely of wood and tended to use mechanical advantage to fling stones and similar missiles . With the development of gunpowder and improved metallurgical techniques , siege engines became artillery . Collectively, siege engines or artillery together with the necessary troops and transport vehicles to conduct a siege are referred to as a SIEGE-TRAIN
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Bourzey Castle
BOURZEY castle is called also MIRZA castle, (Arabic : قلعة ميرزا‎). It is located at the border of Syria coastal mountains and Ghab valley , 25 km away from Jisr al-Shughur , at altitude 450 m. The inscriptions and mentioning of the castle relate it to the Byzantine era in 11th century. Architecturally it has triangle shape, the western façade is 175 m, the eastern is 50 m. The southern and eastern façades are adjacent to deep gorges, but the western façade is the least steep. There is 21 towers and a small church on the surface. After Byzantine rule the castle passed to Ayyubids , who built additional towers in Arabic style. Mamelouks came later to fortify the southern towers. The castle has several arrow bastions, underground rooms, water reservoirs. The road to the castle ends at the western slope. One needs climbing the mountain (~100 m) to reach the castle
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Emir
An EMIR (/əˈmɪər, eɪˈmɪər, ˈeɪmɪər/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: أمير‎‎ ʾAmīr ), sometimes transliterated AMIR, AMIER, or AMEER, is an aristocratic or noble title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is EMIRA (أميرة ʾAmīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate " is analogous to a sovereign principality . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Princely, ministerial and noble titles * 3 Military ranks and titles * 4 Other uses * 5 Emirs in fiction * 6 See also * 7 Notes ORIGINS Emir
Emir
Dost Mohammad Khan , the first Emir
Emir
of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, whose reign started in 1826, with his youngest son Emir
Emir
Sher Ali Khan
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Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
IN ANATOLIA Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty IN AZERBAIJAN Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynasty IN EGYPT Tulunid dynasty Ikhshidid dynasty IN FARS Salghurid dynasty IN THE LEVANT Burid dynasty Zengid dynasty IN YEMEN Rasulid dynasty This box: * view * talk * edit The MAMLUK SULTANATE ( Arabic : سلطنة المماليك‎‎ Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt , the Levant , and Hejaz . It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Historians have traditionally broken the era of Mamlūk rule into two periods—one covering 1250–1382, the other, 1382–1517
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Az-Zahir Ghazi
AL-MALIK AZ-ZAHIR GHAZI IBN YUSUF IBN AYYUB (commonly known as AZ-ZAHIR GHAZI; 1172 – 8 October 1216) was the Ayyubid emir of Aleppo
Aleppo
between 1186 and 1216. He was the third son of Saladin
Saladin
and his lands included northern Syria and a small part of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
. In 1186, when az-Zahir was 15 years of age, his father appointed him governor of Aleppo, Mosul
Mosul
and supporting areas which had recently been taken from the Zengids . At the same time his two older brothers were appointed, respectively, as governor of Syria (al-Afdal ) and Egypt (al-Aziz ). The lands that az-Zahir received had been under the control of his uncle, Saladin's brother al-Adil , and al-Adil took an avuncular interest in az-Zahir. As the third son, when he inherited in 1193 he was to owe suzerainty to his eldest brother, al-Afdal, in Damascus
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Ayyubid Dynasty
The AYYUBID DYNASTY (Arabic : الأيوبيون‎‎ al-Ayyūbīyūn; Kurdish : خانەدانی ئەیووبیان‎ Xanedana Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin
Saladin
and centered in Egypt
Egypt
. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East
Middle East
during the 12th and 13th centuries. Saladin had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt
Egypt
in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimids in 1171. Three years later, he was proclaimed sultan following the death of his former master, the Zengid ruler Nur al-Din
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Crusaders
AFTER 1291 * Poor 1309 * Shepherds\' 1320 * Smyrniote 1343–1351 * Alexandrian 1365 * Savoyard 1366 * Barbary 1390 * Nicopolis 1396 * Varna
Varna
1443 * Portuguese 1481 NORTHERN CRUSADES (1147–1410) * Wendish 1147 * Swedish * 1150 * 1249 * 1293 * Livonian 1198–1290 * Prussian 1217–1274 * Lithuanian 1283–1410 AGAINST CHRISTIANS * Bosnian 1235–1241 * Albigensian 1209–1229 * Aragonese 1284/5 * Despenser\'s 1382/3 * Hussite 1419–1434 ------------------------- * BOOK:THE CRUSADES * PORTAL:CRUSADES Map of the Eastern Mediterranean in 1135. The Frankish Crusader states are indicated with a red cross ☩: Kingdom of Jerusalem , County of Tripoli
County of Tripoli
, Principality of Antioch
Principality of Antioch
, County of Edessa
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First Crusade
CRUSADERS * Kingdom of France * Blois * Toulouse * Boulogne * Flanders * Normandy * Le Puy-en-Velay * Vermandois * Brittany * Holy Roman Empire * Duchy of Lower Lorraine * Republic of Genoa *
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Hospitaller
The ORDER OF KNIGHTS OF THE HOSPITAL OF SAINT JOHN OF JERUSALEM ( Latin
Latin
: Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the ORDER OF SAINT JOHN, ORDER OF HOSPITALLERS, KNIGHTS HOSPITALLER, KNIGHTS HOSPITALIER or HOSPITALLERS, is the medieval Catholic
Catholic
military order that continued into the contemporary Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Malta
, which remains a sovereign subject of international law . It was headquartered variously in the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Rhodes
Rhodes
and Malta
Malta
, until it became known by its current name
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Templars
The Crusades
Crusades
, including: * Siege of Ascalon (1153) * Battle of Montgisard
Battle of Montgisard
(1177) *
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Baibars
BAIBARS or BAYBARS (Arabic : الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري‎‎, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Din Baibars
Baibars
al-Bunduqdar) (1223 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed ABU AL-FUTUH and ABU L-FUTUHAT (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk
Mamluk
Bahri dynasty . He was one of the commanders of the Egyptian forces that inflicted a defeat on the Seventh Crusade
Seventh Crusade
of King Louis IX of France . He also led the vanguard of the Egyptian army at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, which marked the first substantial defeat of the Mongol army and is considered a turning point in history
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Qalawun
QALāWūN Aṣ-ṢāLIḥī ( Arabic
Arabic
: قلاوون الصالحي‎, c. 1222 – November 10, 1290) was the seventh Bahri Mamluk
Mamluk
sultan; he ruled Egypt
Egypt
from 1279 to 1290. Al-Nasir Muhammad Mosque, Cairo
Cairo
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography and rise to power * 2 Mamluk
Mamluk
diplomacy * 3 Wars against the Crusader states
Crusader states
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BIOGRAPHY AND RISE TO POWERQalawun was a Kipchak who became a mamluk (slave soldier) in the 1240s after being sold to a member of Sultan al-Kamil 's household. Qalawun was known as al-Alfī ("the Thousander") because as-Salih Ayyub bought him for a thousand dinars of gold
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List Of Crusader Castles
This is a list of castles in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East , founded or occupied during the Crusades . For crusader castles in Poland and the Baltic states , see Ordensburg . Sidon's Sea Castle built by the crusaders as a fortress of the holy land in Sidon , Lebanon
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Jaroslav Folda
JAROSLAV THAYER FOLDA III (b. 25 July 1940 Baltimore, Md. ) is a medievalist , in which field he is a Haskins Medal winner; he is a scholar in the history of the art of the Crusades and the N. Ferebee Taylor Professor of the History of Art at the University of North Carolina . His area of interest for teaching and research is the art of the Middle Ages in Europe and the Mediterranean world . Folda's approach is art in historical context in which the work of art is examined in terms of form and function, meaning and content, along with what we can know about the patron, the artist, the workshop process by which it was produced, and the audience for whom it was intended. Folda's current research studies the issue of golden highlighting (chrysography ), with regard to its origins, development, and distinctive characteristics in Byzantine and Crusader icon painting and Italian panel painting, mainly in the 13th century
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