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Circular Error Probable In the military science of ballistics , CIRCULAR ERROR PROBABLE (CEP) (also CIRCULAR ERROR PROBABILITY or CIRCLE OF EQUAL PROBABILITY ) is a measure of a weapon system's precision . It is defined as the radius of a circle, centered on the mean, whose boundary is expected to include the landing points of 50% of the rounds . That is, if a given bomb design has a CEP of 100 metres (330 ft), when 100 are targeted at the same point, 50 will fall within a 100 m circle around their average impact point. (The distance between the target point and the average impact point is referred to as bias .) CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 Conversion between CEP, RMS, 2DRMS, and R95 * 3 Use in popular culture * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links CONCEPTThe original concept of CEP was based on a circular bivariate normal distribution (CBN) with CEP as a parameter of the CBN just as μ and σ are parameters of the normal distribution [...More...]  "Circular Error Probable" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Circle A CIRCLE is a simple closed shape in Euclidean geometry Euclidean geometry . It is the set of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a given point, the centre ; equivalently it is the curve traced out by a point that moves so that its distance from a given point is constant . The distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius . A circle is a simple closed curve which divides the plane into two regions: an interior and an exterior. In everyday use, the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure, or to the whole figure including its interior; in strict technical usage, the circle is only the boundary and the whole figure is called a disc . A circle may also be defined as a special kind of ellipse in which the two foci are coincident and the eccentricity is 0, or the twodimensional shape enclosing the most area per unit perimeter squared, using calculus of variations [...More...]  "Circle" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Root Mean Square In statistics and its applications, the ROOT MEAN SQUARE (abbreviated RMS or RMS) is defined as the square root of mean square (the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of numbers). The RMS is also known as the QUADRATIC MEAN and is a particular case of the generalized mean with exponent 2. RMS can also be defined for a continuously varying function in terms of an integral of the squares of the instantaneous values during a cycle. For a cyclically alternating electric current , RMS is equal to the value of the direct current that would produce the same average power dissipation in a resistive load . In Estimation theory the root mean square error of an estimator is a measure of the imperfection of the fit of the estimator to the data [...More...]  "Root Mean Square" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Radius In classical geometry , a RADIUS RADIUS of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter , and in more modern usage, it is also the length of any of them. The name comes from the Latin Latin radius, meaning ray but also the spoke of a chariot wheel. The plural of radius can be either radii (from the Latin Latin plural) or the conventional English plural radiuses. The typical abbreviation and mathematical variable name for radius is R. By extension, the diameter D is defined as twice the radius: d 2 r r = d 2 . {displaystyle ddoteq 2rquad Rightarrow quad r={frac {d}{2}}.} If an object does not have a center, the term may refer to its CIRCUMRADIUS, the radius of its circumscribed circle or circumscribed sphere . In either case, the radius may be more than half the diameter, which is usually defined as the maximum distance between any two points of the figure [...More...]  "Radius" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Covariance In probability theory and statistics , COVARIANCE is a measure of the joint variability of two random variables . If the greater values of one variable mainly correspond with the greater values of the other variable, and the same holds for the lesser values, i.e., the variables tend to show similar behavior, the covariance is positive. In the opposite case, when the greater values of one variable mainly correspond to the lesser values of the other, i.e., the variables tend to show opposite behavior, the covariance is negative. The sign of the covariance therefore shows the tendency in the linear relationship between the variables. The magnitude of the covariance is not easy to interpret. The normalized version of the covariance , the correlation coefficient , however, shows by its magnitude the strength of the linear relation [...More...]  "Covariance" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Variance In probability theory and statistics , VARIANCE is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean . Informally, it measures how far a set of (random) numbers are spread out from their average value. Variance Variance has a central role in statistics, where some ideas that use it include descriptive statistics , statistical inference , hypothesis testing , goodness of fit , and Monte Carlo sampling . Variance Variance is an important tool in the sciences, where statistical analysis of data is common. The variance is the square of the standard deviation , the second central moment of a distribution, and the covariance of the random variable with itself, and it is often represented by 2 {displaystyle sigma ^{2}} , s 2 {displaystyle s^{2}} , or Var ( X ) {displaystyle operatorname {Var} (X)} [...More...]  "Variance" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Clear And Present Danger (film) CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER is a 1994 American spy thriller film directed by Phillip Noyce Phillip Noyce and based on Tom Clancy 's novel of the same name . It was preceded by the 1990 film The Hunt for Red October and the 1992 film Patriot Games , all three featuring Clancy's character Jack Ryan . It is the last film version of Clancy's novels to feature Harrison Ford Harrison Ford as Ryan and James Earl Jones James Earl Jones as Vice Admiral James Greer, as well as the final installment directed by Noyce. As in the novel, Ryan is appointed CIA Acting Deputy Director, and discovers he is being kept in the dark by colleagues who are conducting a covert war against a drug cartel in Colombia Colombia , apparently with the approval of the President [...More...]  "Clear And Present Danger (film)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Hoyt Distribution The NAKAGAMI DISTRIBUTION or the NAKAGAMIM DISTRIBUTION is a probability distribution related to the gamma distribution . It has two parameters: a shape parameter m 1 / 2 {displaystyle mgeq 1/2} and a second parameter controlling spread > 0 {displaystyle Omega >0} . CONTENTS * 1 Characterization * 2 Parameter estimation * 3 Generation * 4 History and applications * 5 Related distributions * 6 References CHARACTERIZATIONIts probability density function (pdf) is f ( x ; m , ) = 2 m m ( m ) m x 2 m 1 exp ( m x 2 ) , x 0 [...More...]  "Hoyt Distribution" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

International Standard Book Number The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an ebook , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nationbased and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero) [...More...]  "International Standard Book Number" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Special SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on [...More...]  "Special" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

MIT Press The MIT PRESS is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Business * 3 Retail outlet * 4 Logo * 5 List of journals published by the MIT Press MIT Press * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe MIT Press MIT Press traces its origins back to 1926 when MIT published under its own name a lecture series entitled Problems of Atomic Dynamics given by the visiting German physicist and later Nobel Prize winner, Max Born Max Born . Six years later, MIT's publishing operations were first formally instituted by the creation of an imprint called TECHNOLOGY PRESS in 1932. This imprint was founded by James R. Killian, Jr. , at the time editor of MIT's alumni magazine and later to become MIT president [...More...]  "MIT Press" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Donald Angus MacKenzie DONALD ANGUS MACKENZIE FBA FRSE FAcSS (born 5 May 1950) is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Edinburgh University of Edinburgh , Scotland Scotland . His work constitutes a crucial contribution to the field of science and technology studies . He has also developed research in the field of social studies of finance . He has undertaken widely cited work on the history of statistics , eugenics , nuclear weapons , computing and finance , among other things. In August 2006, MacKenzie was awarded the Chancellor's Award from Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh , for his contributions to the field of science and technology studies. He is also the winner of the 1993 Robert K. Merton Award of the American Sociological Association American Sociological Association among many others [...More...]  "Donald Angus MacKenzie" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Naval Institute Press THE UNITED STATES NAVAL INSTITUTE (USNI), based in Annapolis Annapolis , Maryland Maryland , is a private, nonprofit (EIN:520643040), professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense and security issues. In addition to publishing magazines and books, the Naval Institute holds several annual conferences. Established in 1873, the Naval Institute currently has about 50,000 members, mostly active and retired personnel of the United States Navy , Marine Corps , and Coast Guard . The organization also has members in over 90 countries. The organization has no official or funding ties to the United States Naval Academy or the U.S. Navy, although it is based on the grounds of the Naval Academy through permission granted by a 1936 Act of Congress [...More...]  "Naval Institute Press" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Pendulum A PENDULUM is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely. When a pendulum is displaced sideways from its resting, equilibrium position , it is subject to a restoring force due to gravity that will accelerate it back toward the equilibrium position. When released, the restoring force acting on the pendulum's mass causes it to oscillate about the equilibrium position, swinging back and forth. The time for one complete cycle, a left swing and a right swing, is called the period . The period depends on the length of the pendulum and also to a slight degree on the amplitude , the width of the pendulum's swing. From the first scientific investigations of the pendulum around 1602 by Galileo Galilei , the regular motion of pendulums was used for timekeeping, and was the world's most accurate timekeeping technology until the 1930s [...More...]  "Pendulum" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Mean Square Error In statistics , the MEAN SQUARED ERROR (MSE) or MEAN SQUARED DEVIATION (MSD) of an estimator (of a procedure for estimating an unobserved quantity) measures the average of the squares of the errors or deviations —that is, the difference between the estimator and what is estimated. MSE is a risk function , corresponding to the expected value of the squared error loss or quadratic loss. The difference occurs because of randomness or because the estimator doesn\'t account for information that could produce a more accurate estimate. The MSE is a measure of the quality of an estimator—it is always nonnegative, and values closer to zero are better. The MSE is the second moment (about the origin) of the error, and thus incorporates both the variance of the estimator and its bias . For an unbiased estimator , the MSE is the variance of the estimator. Like the variance, MSE has the same units of measurement as the square of the quantity being estimated [...More...]  "Mean Square Error" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Round Shot A ROUND SHOT (or SOLID SHOT, or a CANNONBALL, or simply BALL) is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon . As the name implies, a round shot is spherical ; its diameter is slightly less than the bore of the gun from which it is fired. Round shot Round shot was made in early times from dressed stone, referred to as GUNSTONE (Middle English gunneston, from gonne, gunne gun + stoon, ston stone), but by the 17th century, from iron. It was used as the most accurate projectile that could be fired by a smoothbore cannon , used to batter the wooden hulls of opposing ships, fortifications , or fixed emplacements, and as a longrange antipersonnel weapon. However, masonry stone forts designed during the early modern period (known as star forts ) were almost impervious to the effects of roundshot. Grapeshot and round shot were some of the early projectiles used in smoothbores [...More...]  "Round Shot" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 