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Chu River
The CHU (SHU or CHUI, CHUY) (Kazakh : Шу/Şuw, شۋ; Kyrgyz : Чүй, Çüy, چۉي; Dungan : Чў, Çw (from 楚 chǔ); Russian : Чу) is a river in northern Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and southern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
. Of the length of approximately 1 067 kilometres (663 miles), the first 115 kilometres are in Kyrgyzystan, then for 221 kilometres the river is the border between Kyrgyzystan and Kazakhstan, and the last 731 kilometres are in Kazakhstan. It's one of the longest rivers in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and in Kazakhstan. Chuy Region , the northernmost and most populous administrative region of Kyrgyzstan, is named after the river; so are the Chuy Avenue, the main street of Bishkek, and the city of Shu in Kazakhstan's Jambyl Region
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Sughd
Coordinates : 39°30′N 69°0′E / 39.500°N 69.000°E / 39.500; 69.000 Sughd Вилояти Суғд ولایت (استان) سغد Region Sughd in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
COUNTRY Tajikistan
Tajikistan
CAPITAL Khujand
Khujand
AREA • TOTAL 25,400 km2 (9,800 sq mi) POPULATION (2010) • TOTAL 2,233,500 • DENSITY 88/km2 (230/sq mi) ISO 3166 CODE TJ-SUSUGHD REGION (Tajik : Вилояти Суғд Viloyati Suğd/Vilojati Suƣd; Persian : Velâyate soqd ولایت سغد‎‎, transliterated as Sogdia
Sogdia
Province) is one of the four administrative divisions and one of the three provinces (Tajik : вилоятҳо, viloyatho ) that make up Tajikistan
Tajikistan

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Soghdian
The SOGDIAN LANGUAGE was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia
Sogdia
, located in modern-day Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(capital: Samarkand
Samarkand
; other chief cities: Panjakent , Fergana
Fergana
, Khujand
Khujand
, and Bukhara
Bukhara
), as well as some Sogdian immigrant communities in ancient China. Sogdian is one of the most important Middle Iranian languages
Iranian languages
, along with Bactrian , Khotanese Saka , Middle Persian
Middle Persian
, and Parthian . It possesses a large literary corpus
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Iranian Language
The IRANIAN LANGUAGES or IRANIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages , which in turn are a branch of the Indo-European language family . The speakers of Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are known as Iranian peoples . Historical Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are grouped in three stages: Old Iranian (until 400 BC), Middle Iranian (400 BC – 900 AD), and New Iranian (since 900 AD). Of the Old Iranian languages, the better understood and recorded ones are Old Persian
Old Persian
(a language of Achaemenid Iran) and Avestan
Avestan
(the language of the Avesta
Avesta
). Middle Iranian languages
Iranian languages
included Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(a language of Sassanid Iran), Parthian , and Bactrian
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Steppe
In physical geography , a STEPPE (Russian : степь; IPA: ) is an ecoregion , in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes , characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa
South Africa
they are referred to as veld . The prairie (especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such. It may be semi-desert , or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude . The term is also used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest , but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is typically of chernozem type. Steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid and continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C (113 °F) and in winter, −55 °C (−67 °F)
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Great Chüy Canal
The GREAT CHüY CANAL (Kyrgyz : Чоң Чүй каналы, , Russian : Большой Чуйский канал, often abbreviated БЧК) is one of an extensive complex of irrigation canals of the Chuy Valley in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and to some extent Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, composed of three branches: the Western Great Chüy Canal, the Eastern Great Chüy Canal, and the Southern Great Chüy Canal. The Great Chüy Canal
Great Chüy Canal
flows through the northern part of Bishkek
Bishkek
, the capital of Kyrgyzstan, from east to west. It was built under the administration of the Soviet Union , with M. V. Patrushev as authoring engineer. The canal reaches the Ala-Archa River
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Kochkor District
KOCHKOR is a raion (district) of Naryn Region
Naryn Region
in northern-central Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. The capital lies at Kochkor . Its area is 5,868 square kilometres (2,266 sq mi), and its resident population was 58,267 in 2009. POPULATED PLACESIn total, Kochkor District includes 11 rural communities (aiyl okmotus). Each rural community comprises one or several villages
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Balykchy
BALYKCHY (Kyrgyz : Балыкчы - Balıkçı) is a town at the western end of Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, at an elevation of about 1,900 metres. Its area is 38 square kilometres (15 sq mi), and its resident population was 42,875 in 2009 (both including Orto-Tokoy ). A major industrial and transport centre (wool and crop processing, lake shipping, rail terminal, and road junction) during the Soviet era, it lost most of its economic base after the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the closure of virtually all of its industrial facilities
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Bishkek
BISHKEK (Kyrgyz : Бишкéк; IPA: ; Russian : Бишке́к; IPA: ), formerly PISHPEK and FRUNZE, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek
Bishkek
is also the administrative center of the Chuy Region . The province surrounds the city, although the city itself is not part of the province, but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan. Post-Soviet research suggests the name derives from a Kyrgyz word for a churn used to make fermented mare's milk (kumis ), the Kyrgyz national drink - although not all sources agree on this. In 1825 Khokand authorities established the fortress of "Pishpek" in order to control local caravan-routes and to collect tribute from Kyrgyz tribes. On 4 September 1860, with the approval of the Kyrgyz, Russian forces led by Colonel Zimmermann
Zimmermann
destroyed the fortress
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES (or MEDIEVAL PERIOD) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Suayub
SUYAB (Persian : سوی آب‎‎; simplified Chinese : 碎叶; traditional Chinese : 碎葉; pinyin : Suìyè; Wade–Giles : Sui4-yeh4), also known as Ordukent (modern-day Ak-Beshim), was an ancient Silk Road
Silk Road
city located some 50 km east from Bishkek
Bishkek
, and 8 km west southwest from Tokmok , in the Chui River
Chui River
valley, present-day Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Archaeological site * 3 References * 3.1 Citations * 3.2 Sources * 4 External links HISTORYThe settlement of Sogdian merchants sprang up along the Silk Road
Silk Road
in the 5th or 6th centuries. The name of the city derives from that of the Suyab River , whose origin is Iranian (in Persian : suy means "toward"+ ab for "water", "rivers")
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Phenols
In organic chemistry , PHENOLS, sometimes called PHENOLICS, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—O H ) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The simplest of the class is phenol , which is also called carbolic acid C 6H 5OH. Phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the molecule. Phenol
Phenol
- the simplest of the phenols. Chemical structure of Salicylic acid
Salicylic acid
the active metabolite of Aspirin
Aspirin
. Chemical structure of Aloe emodin
Aloe emodin
a diphenol. Quercetin
Quercetin
, a typical flavonoid , is a polyphenol . Tannic acid
Tannic acid
, a typical polyphenol of indeterminate structure. Lignin
Lignin
, is around 25% of the composition of wood
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Balbal
KURGAN STELAE (Mongolian : хүн чулуу; Russian : каменные бабы; Ukrainian : Баби кам'яні "stone babas"; Kyrgyz : балбал ) or BALBALS (балбал balbal, most probably from a Turkic word balbal meaning "ancestor" or "grandfather" or the Mongolic word "barimal" which means "handmade statue") are anthropomorphic stone stelae , images cut from stone, installed atop, within or around kurgans (i.e. tumuli ), in kurgan cemeteries, or in a double line extending from a kurgan. The stelae are also described as "obelisks" or "statue menhirs ". Spanning more than three millennia, they are clearly the product of various cultures
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Burana Tower
The BURANA TOWER is a large minaret in the Chuy Valley in northern Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. It is located about 80 km east of the country's capital Bishkek
Bishkek
, near the town of Tokmok
Tokmok
. The tower, along with grave markers, some earthworks and the remnants of a castle and three mausoleums , is all that remains of the ancient city of Balasagun , which was established by the Karakhanids at the end of the 9th century. An external staircase and steep, winding stairway inside the tower enables visitors to climb to the top. The tower was originally 45 m (148 ft) high. However, over the centuries a number of earthquakes caused significant damage to the structure. The last major earthquake in the 15th century destroyed the top half of the tower, reducing it to its current height of 25 m (82 ft)
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Copper
COPPER is a chemical element with symbol CU (from Latin : cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity . A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material , and as a constituent of various metal alloys , such as sterling silver used in jewelry , cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins , and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals ) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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