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Chronic Infection
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time. The term chronic is often applied when the course of the disease lasts for more than three months. Common chronic diseases include arthritis, asthma, cancer, COPD, diabetes and some viral diseases such as hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS. An illness which is lifelong because it ends in death is a terminal illness. In medicine, a chronic condition can be distinguished from one that is acute (recent in onset); additionally, a recurrent condition can relapse repeatedly, with periods of remission in between. The non-communicable diseases are also usually lasting medical conditions but are distinguished by their non-infectious causes
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Chronic Toxicity
Chronic toxicity, the development of adverse effects as a result of long term exposure to a contaminant or other stressor, is an important aspect of aquatic toxicology.[1] Adverse effects associated with chronic toxicity can be directly lethal but are more commonly sublethal, including changes in growth, reproduction, or behavior. Chronic toxicity is in contrast to acute toxicity, which occurs over a shorter period of time to higher concentrations
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Lupus Erythematosus
Lupus erythematosus
Lupus erythematosus
is a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.[1] Symptoms
Symptoms
of these diseases can affect many different body systems, including joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, heart, and lungs. The most common and severe form is systemic lupus erythematosus.Contents1 Signs and symptoms1.1 Photosensitivity2 Genetics2.1 Causes 2.2 Age difference 2.3 Differences in ethnicity3 Diagnosis3.1 Classification4 Treatment 5 Epidemiology5.1 Worldwide 5.2 United Kingdom 5.3 United States6 See also 7 References 8 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] Symptoms
Symptoms
vary from person to person, and may come and go. Almost everyone with lupus has joint pain and swelling. Some develop arthritis. Frequently affected joints are the fingers, hands, wrists, and knees
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Heart Failure
Heart
Heart
failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.[9][10][11] Signs and symptoms commonly include shortness of breath, excessive tiredness, and leg swelling.[2] The shortness of breath is usually worse with exercise, while lying down, and may wake the person at night.[2] A limited ability to exercise is also a common feature.[12] Chest pain, including angina, does not typically occur due to heart failure.[13] Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), h
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Ischemic Cardiopathy
Coronary artery
Coronary artery
disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD),[13] refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.[14] It is within the group of cardiovascular diseases of which it is the most common type.[15] A common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.[4] Occasionally it may feel like heartburn
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.[1][8] The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough with sputum production.[1] COPD
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Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus
(DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes
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Addiction
Addiction
Addiction
is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.[8] Despite the involvement of a number of psychosocial factors, a biological process – one which is induced by repeated exposure to an addictive stimulus – is the core pathology that drives the development and maintenance of an addiction.[1][9] The two properties that characterize all addictive stimuli are that they are reinforcing (i.e., they increase the likelihood that a person will seek repeated exposure to them) and intrinsically rewarding (i.e., they are perceived as bein
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Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease
(AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.[1][2] It is the cause of 60% to 70% of cases of dementia.[1][2] The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss).[1] As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, loss of motivation, not managing self care, and behavioural issues.[1][2] As a
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Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation
(AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.[10] Often it starts as brief periods of abnormal beating which become longer and possibly constant over time.[3] Often episodes have no symptoms.[2] Occasionally there may be heart palpitations, fainting, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, or chest pain.[1] The disease is associated with an increased risk of heart failure, dementia, and stroke.[2] It is a type of supraventricular tachycardia.[11] High blood pressure and valvular hea
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention
Attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.[9][10] It is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior which is not appropriate for a person's age.[1][2] The symptoms appear before a person is twelve years old, are present for more than six months, and cause problems in at least two settings (such as school, home, or recreational activities).[3][11] In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance.[1] Although it causes impairment, particularly in mo
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Autoimmune Diseases
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.[1] There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases.[1] Nearly any body part can be involved.[3] Common symptoms include low grade fever and feeling tired.[1] Often symptoms come and go.[1] The cause is generally unknown.[3] Some autoimmune diseases such as lupus run in families, and certain cases may be triggered by infections or other environmental factors.[1] Some common diseases that are generally considered autoimmune include celiac disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, Graves' disease, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.[1][4] The diagnosis can be difficult to determine.[1] Treatment depends on the type and severity of the condition.[1]
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Ulcerative Colitis
Ulcerative colitis
Ulcerative colitis
(UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.[1][5] The primary symptom of active disease is abdominal pain and diarrhea mixed with blood.[1] Weight loss, fever, and anemia may also occur.[1] Often symptoms come on slowly and can range from mild to severe.[1] Symptoms typically occur intermittently with periods of no symptoms between flares.[1] Complications may include megacolon, inflammation of the eye, joints, or liver, and colon cancer.[1][2] The cause of UC is unknown.[1] Theories involve immune system dysfunction, genetics, change
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Crohn's Disease
Crohn's disease
Crohn's disease
is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.[2] Signs and symptoms often include abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, and weight loss.[1][2] Other complications may occur outside the gastrointestinal tract and include anemia, skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, and tiredness.[1] The skin rashes may be due to infections as well as pyoderma gangrenosum or erythema nodosum.[1]
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Cardiovascular Diseases
Cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
(CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.[2] Cardiovascular disease
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Coeliac Disease
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder primarily affecting the small intestine that occurs in people who are genetically predisposed.[10] Classic symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distention, malabsorption, loss of appetite and among children failure to grow normally.[1] This often begins between six months and two years of age.[1] Non-classic symptoms are more common, especially in people older than two years.[8][15][16][17] There may be mild or absent gastrointestinal symptoms, a wide number of symptoms involving any part of the body or no obvious symptoms.[1] Coeliac disease
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