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Chromolithography
CHROMOLITHOGRAPHY is a unique method for making multi-colour prints . This type of colour printing stemmed from the process of lithography , and includes all types of lithography that are printed in colour. When chromolithography is used to reproduce photographs, the term photochrome is frequently used. Lithographers sought to find a way to print on flat surfaces with the use of chemicals instead of raised relief or recessed intaglio techniques. Chromolithography
Chromolithography
became the most successful of several methods of colour printing developed by the 19th century; other methods were developed by printers such as Jacob Christoph Le Blon , George Baxter and Edmund Evans , and mostly relied on using several woodblocks with the colours. Hand-colouring also remained important; elements of the official British Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
maps were coloured by hand by boys until 1875
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Woodcut
WOODCUT is a relief printing technique in printmaking . An artist carves an image into the surface of a block of wood —typically with gouges —leaving the printing parts level with the surface while removing the non-printing parts. Areas that the artist cuts away carry no ink, while characters or images at surface level carry the ink to produce the print. The block is cut along the wood grain (unlike wood engraving , where the block is cut in the end-grain). The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with an ink-covered roller (brayer ), leaving ink upon the flat surface but not in the non-printing areas. Multiple colors can be printed by keying the paper to a frame around the woodblocks (using a different block for each color)
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Photostat Machine
The PHOTOSTAT MACHINE, or PHOTOSTAT, was an early projection photocopier created in the decade of the 1900s by the Commercial Camera
Camera
Company, which became the Photostat Corporation. The "Photostat" name, which was originally a trademark of the company, became genericized , and was often used to refer to similar machines produced by the Rectigraph Company. Photostat of a document from the end of WW2 CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Background * 1.2 Rectigraph and Photostat machines * 2 Description * 3 Notes * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Commercial Camera
Camera
Company Photostat advertisement in Engineering News, 1913. Commercial Camera
Camera
Company Photostat advertisement in American Machinist, 1920
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Ordnance Survey
ORDNANCE SURVEY (OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain. It is one of the world's largest producers of maps . Since 1 April 2015 it has operated as Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Ltd, a government-owned company , 100% in public ownership. The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. It is also a member of the Public Data Group . The agency's name indicates its original military purpose (see ordnance and surveying ), which was to map Scotland
Scotland
in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745 . There was also a more general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars

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Gum Arabic
GUM ARABIC, also known as ACACIA GUM, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree. Originally, gum arabic was collected from Acacia
Acacia
nilotica which was called the "gum arabic tree"; in the present day, gum arabic is predominantly collected from two related species, namely Acacia senegal and Vachellia (Acacia) seyal . Producers harvest the gum commercially from wild trees, mostly in Sudan
Sudan
(80%) and throughout the Sahel , from Senegal
Senegal
to Somalia
Somalia
—though it is historically cultivated in Arabia and West Asia . Gum arabic
Gum arabic
is a complex mixture of glycoproteins and polysaccharides . It is the original source of the sugars arabinose and ribose , both of which were first discovered and isolated from it, and are named after it
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George Baxter (printer)
GEORGE BAXTER (1804–1867) was an English artist and printer based in London. He is credited with the invention of commercially viable colour printing. Though colour printing had been developed in China centuries before, it was not commercially viable. However, in early years of the 19th century the process of colour printing had been revived by George Savage , a Yorkshireman in London. It was to be Savage's methods upon which Baxter, already an accomplished artist and engraver, was to improve. In 1828, Baxter began experimenting with colour printing by means of woodblocks . CONTENTS * 1 Baxter\'s life * 2 Baxter’s licensees * 3 Baxter\'s method * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links BAXTER\'S LIFE George Baxter, from a photograph supplied by Mr. Frederick Harrild, taken from the original in the possession of the family. Baxter was born in 1804 in Lewes, Sussex, and was the second son of John Baxter , a printer
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Intaglio (printmaking)
INTAGLIO (/ɪnˈtæli.oʊ/ in-TAL-ee-oh ; Italian: ) is the family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink. It is the direct opposite of a relief print . Normally, copper or zinc plates are used as a surface or matrix, and the incisions are created by etching , engraving , drypoint , aquatint or mezzotint . Collagraphs may also be printed as intaglio plates. CONTENTS * 1 Process * 2 Brief history * 3 Current use * 4 Famous intaglio artists * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links PROCESSIn intaglio printing, the lines to be printed are cut into a metal plate by means either of a cutting tool called a burin , held in the hand – in which case the process is called engraving; or through the corrosive action of acid – in which case the process is known as etching
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Solid Ink Printing
SOLID INK is a technology used in computer printers and multifunction devices originally credited with creation by Tektronix
Tektronix
in 1986. After Xerox
Xerox
acquired the Tektronix
Tektronix
Color Printing and Imaging Division in 2000, the solid ink technology became part of the Xerox
Xerox
line of office printing and imaging products. Early offerings focused on the graphic arts industry. However, to forestall a legal battle with Dataproducts Corporation, Tektronix
Tektronix
ended up paying royalties to Dataproducts for the use of the technology due to the latter holding patents, purchased from Exxon, on aspects of solid-ink printing. The first solid ink printer, the SI-480, was developed and released to the market in 1988 by Dataproducts Corporation. This was a monochrome printer that met with limited success
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Felipe Alfau
FELIPE ALFAU (1902–1999) was a Spanish -born American novelist and poet . Like his contemporaries Luigi Pirandello
Luigi Pirandello
and Flann O\'Brien , Alfau is considered a forerunner of later postmodern writers such as Vladimir Nabokov
Vladimir Nabokov
, Thomas Pynchon
Thomas Pynchon
, Donald Barthelme
Donald Barthelme
, and Gilbert Sorrentino . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Writings * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn in Barcelona
Barcelona
, Alfau emigrated with his family at the age of fourteen to the United States, where he lived the remainder of his life. Alfau earned a living as a translator ; his sparse fictional and poetic output remained obscure throughout most of his life. Alfau wrote two novels in English: Locos: A Comedy of Gestures and Chromos
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Printmaking
PRINTMAKING is the process of making artworks by printing , normally on paper . Printmaking normally covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Except in the case of monotyping , the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a PRINT. Each print produced is not considered a "copy" but rather is considered an "original". This is because typically each print varies to an extent due to variables intrinsic to the printmaking process, and also because the imagery of a print is typically not simply a reproduction of another work but rather is often a unique image designed from the start to be expressed in a particular printmaking technique. A print may be known as an IMPRESSION
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Relief Print
RELIEF PRINTING is a process where protruding surface faces of the printing plate or block are inked; recessed areas are ink free. Printing the image is therefore a relatively simple matter of inking the face of the matrix and bringing it in firm contact with the paper. A printing-press may not be needed as the back of the paper can be rubbed or pressed by hand with a simple tool such as a brayer or roller. The matrix in relief printing is classically created by starting with a flat original surface, and then removing (e.g., by carving) away areas intended to print white. The remaining areas of the original surface receive the ink. The relief family of techniques includes woodcut , metalcut , wood engraving , relief etching , linocut , rubber stamp , foam printing, potato printing, and some types of collagraph . Traditional text printing with movable type is also a relief technique
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France
FRANCE (French: ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française, pronounced ), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe
Europe
, as well as several overseas regions and territories . The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea
North Sea
, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America
South America
and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Limestone
LIMESTONE is a sedimentary rock , composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral , forams and molluscs . Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite , which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone
Limestone
has numerous uses: as a building material , an essential component of concrete ( Portland cement
Portland cement
), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints , as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime , as a soil conditioner , or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens
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Oil Painting
OIL PAINTING is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder . Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil , poppy seed oil , walnut oil , and safflower oil . The choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint , such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are also visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use several different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves also develop a particular consistency depending on the medium. The oil may be boiled with a resin , such as pine resin or frankincense , to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Although oil paint was first used for Buddhist paintings by Indian and Chinese painters in western Afghanistan sometime between the fifth and tenth centuries, it did not gain popularity until the 15th century
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
(which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller named islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight
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American Civil War
Union victory * Dissolution of the Confederate States * U.S. territorial integrity preserved * Slavery abolished * Beginning of the Reconstruction Era BELLIGERENTS United States
United States
Confederate States COMMANDERS AND LEADERSABRAHAM LINCOLN † Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman
William T. Sherman
David Farragut
David Farragut
George B. McClellan
George B. McClellan
Henry Halleck George Meade and others JEFFERSON DAVIS Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
J.E. Johnston P. G. T. Beauregard
P. G. T. Beauregard
A.S
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