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Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus[a] (/kəˈlʌmbəs/[3] c. 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer. Born in the Republic of Genoa,[4] under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
of Spain
Spain
he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the permanent European colonization of the New World. At a time when European kingdoms were beginning to establish new trade routes and colonies, motivated by imperialism and economic competition, Columbus proposed to reach the East Indies
East Indies
(South and Southeast Asia) by sailing westward. This eventually received the support of the Spanish Crown, which saw a chance to enter the spice trade with Asia
Asia
through this new route
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Lesser Antilles
The Lesser Antilles
Antilles
are a group of islands in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. Most form a long, partly volcanic island arc between the Greater Antilles to the north-west and the continent of South America.[1] The islands form the eastern boundary of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea with the Atlantic Ocean. Together, the Lesser Antilles
Antilles
and the Greater Antilles
Greater Antilles
compose the Antilles
Antilles
(or the Caribbean
Caribbean
in its narrowest definition)
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Norse Colonization Of North America
The Norse colonization of North America
North America
began in the late 10th century AD when Norsemen
Norsemen
explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic including the northeastern fringes of North America.[1] Viking houses were found at L’Anse aux Meadows
L’Anse aux Meadows
near the northern tip of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
in 1960. This discovery aided the reignition of archaeological exploration for the Vikings in the North Atlantic.[2] The Norse colony in Greenland
Greenland
lasted for almost 500 years. Continental North American settlements were small and did not develop into permanent colonies
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Greater Antilles
The Greater Antilles
Antilles
is a grouping of the larger islands in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea: Cuba, Hispaniola
Hispaniola
(containing Haiti
Haiti
and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands. The Greater Antilles
Antilles
constitute nearly 90% of the land mass of the entire West Indies,[1] as well as over 90% of its population
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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Genocide
European colonization of the AmericasDzungar genocide, 1750s Manifest DestinyIndian Removal, 1830s California Genocide, 1848–1873Circassian genocide, 1860s Selk'nam genocide, 1890s–1900s Herero and Namaqua genocide, 1904–1907 Greek genocide, 1914–1923 Assyrian genocide, 1914–1925 Armenian Genocide, 1915–1923 Libyan Genocide, 1923–1932Soviet genocide Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
in the Soviet UnionSoviet famine of 1932–33Holodomor, 1931–1933 Kazakhstan, 1930–1933Mass Deportations during World War IIKalmyks, 1943 Chechens and Ingush, 1944 Crimean Tatars, 1944Nazi Holoc
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Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Asia
or Southeastern Asia
Asia
is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia.[4] Southeast Asia
Asia
is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia
Asia
and Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania
Oceania
and Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia
Australia
and Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere
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South Asia
South
South
Asia
Asia
or Southern Asia
Asia
(also known as Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC
SAARC
countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal
Nepal
and all parts of India
India
situated south of the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Hindu
Hindu
Kush
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Competition (economics)
In economics, "competition" is the rivalry among sellers trying to achieve such goals as increasing profits, market share, and sales volume by varying the elements of the marketing mix: price, product, promotion and place
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Trade Route
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of water. Allowing goods to reach distant markets, a single trade route contains long distance arteries, which may further be connected to smaller networks of commercial and noncommercial transportation routes
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Monarchies In Europe
Monarchy
Monarchy
was the prevalent form of government in the history of Europe throughout the Middle Ages, only occasionally competing with communalism, notably in the case of the Maritime republics
Maritime republics
and the Swiss Confederacy. Republicanism
Republicanism
became more prevalent in the Early Modern period, but monarchy remained predominant in Europe
Europe
during the 19th century. Since the end of World War I, however, most European monarchies have been abolished. There remain, as of 2016, twelve (12) sovereign monarchies in Europe
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Ocean Sea
The World Ocean or Global Ocean (colloquially the sea or the ocean) is the interconnected system of Earth's oceanic waters, and comprises the bulk of the hydrosphere, covering 361,132,000 square kilometres (139,434,000 sq mi) (70.8%) of Earth's surface, with a total volume of 1,332,000,000 cubic kilometres (320,000,000 cu mi).[1]Contents1 Organization 2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksOrganization[edit] The unity and continuity of the World Ocean, with relatively free interchange among its parts, is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[2] It is divided into a number of principal oceanic areas that are delimited by the continents and various oceanographic features: these divisions are the Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean (sometimes considered a sea of the Atlantic), Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Southern Ocean, defined by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) in 2000, based on evidence that this region of
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Admiral
Admiral
Admiral
is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM". The rank is generally thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر‎, amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea", with Latin
Latin
admirabilis[1] ("admirable") or admiratus ("admired"), although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version - "Amiral" without the additional "d" - tends to add evidence for the Arab origin. In the Commonwealth and the U.S., a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general in the army, and is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet (or fleet admiral)
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Atlantic Slave Trade
The Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly from Africa
Africa
to the Americas, and then their sale there. The slave trade used mainly the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage, and existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were Africans from central and western Africa, who had been sold by other West Africans to Western European slave traders (with a small number being captured directly by the slave traders in coastal raids), who brought them to the Americas.[1] The South Atlantic and Caribbean economies especially were dependent on the supply of secure labour for the production of commodity crops, making goods and clothing to sell in Europe
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Colonialism
Colonialism
Colonialism
is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health. The European colonial period was the era from the 15th century to 1914 when Spain, Portugal, Britain, Russia, France, the Netherlands, Germany, and several smaller European countries such a Belgium and Italy, established colonies outside Europe.[1] It has been estimated that by 1914, Europeans had gained control of 84% of the globe, and by 1800, before the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
had taken hold, they already controlled at least 35% (excluding Antarctica).[2] The system practically ended between 1945–1975 when nearly all colonies became independent
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List Of Maritime Explorers
Contents1 Purpose of the list 2 Definition 3 List scope 4 Notability criteria 5 Ocean explorers 6 See also 7 References and notesPurpose of the list[edit] The purpose of the list is to enable the reader to navigate between entries of diverse maritime explorers from a central encyclopedic point of reference. Definition[edit] A communication with other populations, commercial trade, and military missions such as establishment of colonies. List scope[edit] Necessarily the list can only relate to individuals and their missions which used watercraft for much of their duration. Maritime exploration has not diminished in importance with the emergence of the aircraft, and remains an important part of contemporary scientific research. Although human maritime exploration is very ancient, only explorers known in recorded histories of their cultures are noted here
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