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Christmas
Christmas
Christmas
is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,[8][9] observed primarily on December 25[4][10][11] as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world.[2][12][13] A feast central to the Christian
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Julian Calendar
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.[1] It took effect on 1 January
January
45 BC (AUC 709), by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII. The Julian calendar
Julian calendar
gains against the mean tropical year at the rate of one day in 128 years. For the Gregorian calendar, the figure is one day in 3,030 years.[2] The difference in the average length of the year between Julian (365.25 days) and Gregorian (365.2425 days) is 0.002%. The Julian calendar
Julian calendar
has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months, as listed in the table below. A leap day is added to February every four years
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Western Christianity
Western Christianity
Christianity
is the type of Christianity
Christianity
which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.[1] Western Christianity consists of the Latin Rite
Latin Rite
of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(in contrast to the Eastern rites in communion with Rome) and a wide variety of Protestant denominations. The name "Western Christianity" is applied in order to distinguish these from Eastern Christianity. With the expansion of European colonialism from the Early Modern era, Western Christianity
Christianity
spread throughout the Americas, much of the Philippines, Southern Africa, pockets of West Africa, and throughout Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
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New Testament
The New Testament
New Testament
(Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Latin: Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament
New Testament
discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians
Christians
regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture. The New Testament
New Testament
(in whole or in part) has frequently accompanied the spread of Christianity
Christianity
around the world. It reflects and serves as a source for Christian theology
Christian theology
and morality
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Christian Messianic Prophecies
The New Testament
New Testament
frequently cites Jewish scripture to support the claim of the Early Christians
Early Christians
that Jesus of Nazareth
Jesus of Nazareth
is the Messiah, and faith in Jesus as the Christos and his imminent expected Second Coming. The majority of these quotations and references are taken from the Book of Isaiah, but they range over the entire corpus of Jewish writings. People of the Jewish faith do not regard any of these as having been fulfilled by Jesus, and in some cases do not regard them as messianic prophecies at all
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Armenian Patriarchate Of Jerusalem
The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
also known as the Armenian Patriarchate of Sts. James (Armenian: Առաքելական Աթոռ Սրբոց Յակովբեանց Յերուսաղեմ Aṙak’yelakan At’voṙ Srboc’ Yakovbeanc’ Yerusaġem, literally "Apostolic See of St. James in Jerusalem") is located in the Armenian Quarter
Armenian Quarter
of Jerusalem. The Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
is officially recognised under Israel's confessional system, for the self-regulation of status issues, such as marriage and divorce. Archbishop Nourhan Manougian, served the Armenian Church as the Grand Sacristan and the Patriarchal Vicar of the Patriarchate, when he was elected as the 97th Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on January 24, 2013. Manougian succeeded Archbishop Torkom Manoogian, who died on October 12, 2012 after serving 22 years in the office
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Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy[a] is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Armenia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan
Sudan
and parts of the Middle East
Middle East
and India
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Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
Christianity
consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Assyrian Church of the East, and the Eastern Catholic churches
Eastern Catholic churches
(that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies). The term is used in contrast with Western Christianity
Christianity
(namely the Latin Church and Protestantism). Eastern Christianity
Christianity
consists of the Christian traditions and churches that developed in the Middle East, Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, Southern India
Southern India
and parts of the Far East over several centuries. The term does not describe a single communion or religious denomination. Some Eastern churches have more in common historically and theologically with Western Christianity
Christianity
than with one another
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Old Style And New Style Dates
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day
Lady Day
(25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar.[2][3][4] Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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Christian
A Christian
Christian
(/ˈkrɪstʃən, -tiən/ ( listen)) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
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Western Christian Church
Western Christianity
Christianity
is the type of Christianity
Christianity
which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.[1] Western Christianity consists of the Latin Rite
Latin Rite
of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(in contrast to the Eastern rites in communion with Rome) and a wide variety of Protestant denominations. The name "Western Christianity" is applied in order to distinguish these from Eastern Christianity. With the expansion of European colonialism from the Early Modern era, Western Christianity
Christianity
spread throughout the Americas, much of the Philippines, Southern Africa, pockets of West Africa, and throughout Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
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Eastern Christian Churches
Eastern Christianity
Christianity
consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Assyrian Church of the East, and the Eastern Catholic churches
Eastern Catholic churches
(that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies). The term is used in contrast with Western Christianity
Christianity
(namely the Latin Church and Protestantism). Eastern Christianity
Christianity
consists of the Christian traditions and churches that developed in the Middle East, Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, Southern India
Southern India
and parts of the Far East over several centuries. The term does not describe a single communion or religious denomination. Some Eastern churches have more in common historically and theologically with Western Christianity
Christianity
than with one another
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Feast Day
The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint. The word "feast" in this context does not mean "a large meal, typically a celebratory one", but instead "an annual religious celebration, a day dedicated to a particular saint".[1] The system arose from the early Christian custom of commemorating each martyr annually on the date of his or her death, or birth into heaven, a date therefore referred to in Latin
Latin
as the martyr's dies natalis ("day of birth")
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Angels
An angel is generally a supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies. In Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
and Zoroastrianism, angels are often depicted as benevolent celestial beings who act as intermediaries between God
God
or Heaven
Heaven
and Humanity.[1][2] Other roles of angels include protecting and guiding human beings, and carrying out God's tasks.[3] Within Abrahamic religions, angels are often organized into hierarchies, although such rankings may vary between sects in each religion, and are given specific names or titles, such as Gabriel
Gabriel
or "Destroying angel". The term "angel" has also been expanded to various notions of spirits or figures found in other religious traditions
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Gregorian Calendar
The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.[1][2][Note 1] It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October
October
1582. It was a refinement to the Julian calendar[3] involving an approximately 0.002% correction in the length of the calendar year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the northern vernal equinox, which helps set the date for Easter. Transition to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe
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Civil Calendar
The civil calendar is the calendar, or possibly one of several calendars, used within a country for civil, official or administrative purposes. The civil calendar is almost always used for general purposes by people and private organizations. The most widespread civil calendar and de facto international standard is the Gregorian calendar. Though that calendar is associated with the Catholic Church and the papacy, it has been adopted, as a matter of convenience, by many secular and non-Christian countries although some countries use other calendars. Commonly, another calendar, or more than one, is used alongside the civil calendar. For example, Christian Churches have their own calendars, which they use to compute the dates for their own festivals, though most of these dates are then expressed relative to the civil calendar. In Christian terminology these festivals are called movable feasts
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