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Christian The Younger Of Brunswick
CHRISTIAN THE YOUNGER (September 20, 1599 – June 16, 1626), a member of the House of Welf
House of Welf
, titular Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and administrator of the Prince- Bishopric of Halberstadt
Bishopric of Halberstadt
, was a German Protestant
Protestant
military leader during the early years of the Thirty Years\' War . Fighting against the forces of the Imperial House of Habsburg , Habsburg Spain
Habsburg Spain
, and the Catholic
Catholic
League , he earned a reputation as a dangerous fanatic
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Bishopric Of Münster
The BISHOPRIC OF MüNSTER was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire , located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony . From the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, it was often held in personal union with one or more of the nearby ecclesiastical principalities of Cologne , Paderborn , Osnabrück , Hildesheim , and Liège . Münster was bordered by the United Provinces to the west, by Cleves , Vest Recklinghausen , and Mark in the south, Paderborn and Osnabrück in the east. In the north and north-east it bordered East Frisia , Oldenburg and the Electorate of Hanover (est. 1692). Münster and surrounding area on the eve of the French Revolution As with all the other prince-bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire, it is important to distinguish between the Prince-Bishopric of Münster and the Diocese of Münster although both entities were ruled by the same individual
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Westphalia
WESTPHALIA (/wɛstˈfeɪliə/ ; German : Westfalen pronounced ) is a region in northwestern Germany
Germany
and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
. It has an area of 20,208 km2 (7,802 sq mi) and 7.9 million inhabitants. The region is almost identical with the Province of Westphalia which was a part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
from 1815 to 1918 and the Free State of Prussia
Prussia
from 1918 to 1946. In 1946, Westphalia
Westphalia
merged with the Northern Rhineland
Rhineland
, another former part of Prussia, to form the newly created state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
. In 1947, the state with its two historic parts was joined by a third one: Lippe, a former principality and free state
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Bishopric Of Paderborn
The PRINCE-BISHOPRIC OF PADERBORN (German : Fürstbistum Paderborn) was a principality ( Hochstift ) of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
from 1281 to 1802. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Prince-bishops * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY Paderborn
Paderborn
Cathedral around 1891 The Diocese of Paderborn
Paderborn
was founded in 799 by Pope Leo III . In the early years it was subordinated to the bishop of Würzburg . Since 855 the clergy had the right to elect the bishop. The diocese included the larger part of Lippe
Lippe
, Waldeck , and nearly half of the County of Ravensberg
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Ernst Von Mansfeld
ERNST GRAF VON MANSFELD (c. 1580 – 29 November 1626), was a German military commander during the early years of the Thirty Years\' War . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Notes * 3 References * 4 Further reading BIOGRAPHYMansfeld was a illegitimate son of Count Peter Ernst von Mansfeld (1517–1604), a member of the comital House of Mansfeld and royal Spanish stadtholder. He was raised in the Catholic faith at his father's palace in Luxembourg . He gained his earliest military experiences during the Long War in Hungary , where his elder half-brother Charles (1543–1595), also a soldier of renown, held a high command in the imperial army. While his brother succumbed to an epidemic within short time, young Ernst stayed at the theatre of war for several years. In the War of the Jülich Succession he served under Archduke Leopold V of Austria , until that prince's ingratitude, real or fancied, drove him into the arms of the enemies of the House of Habsburg
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Georg Friedrich, Margrave Of Baden-Durlach
The MARGRAVIATE OF BADEN (German : Markgrafschaft Baden) was a historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. Spread along the east side of the Upper Rhine River in southwestern Germany
Germany
, it was named a margraviate in 1112 and existed until 1803, when it was raised to an electorate . In 1806, the Electorate of Baden , receiving territorial additions, became the Grand Duchy of Baden . The rulers of Baden belonged to the Swabian House of Zähringen
House of Zähringen

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Horace Vere
HORACE VERE, 1ST BARON VERE OF TILBURY (1565 – 2 May 1635) (also Horatio Vere or Horatio de Vere) was an English military leader during the Eighty Years\' War and the Thirty Years\' War , a son of Geoffrey Vere and brother of Francis Vere . He was sent to the Palatinate by James I in 1620. He was created BARON VERE OF TILBURY , and died without a male heir. CONTENTS * 1 Family * 2 Military career * 2.1 Anglo Spanish war * 2.2 Dutch Service * 2.3 Palatinate campaign * 2.4 Breda and the Brabant campaign * 3 Death * 4 Marriage and issue * 5 Notes * 6 References FAMILYHorace Vere, born in 1565, was the fourth son of Geoffrey Vere of Crepping Hall, Essex , a younger son of John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford , and Elizabeth Trussell . His mother was Elizabeth Hardekyn (d. December 1615), daughter of Richard Hardekyn (d.1558) of Wotton House near Castle Hedingham
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James I Of England
JAMES VI AND I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as JAMES VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as JAMES I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciary, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union . James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots , and a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland , positioning him to eventually accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother Mary was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583
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Bergen Op Zoom
BERGEN OP ZOOM (Dutch pronunciation: ( listen ); called Berrege in the local dialect) is a municipality and a city located in the south of the Netherlands
Netherlands
. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 2.1 Trading town * 2.2 Religion * 3 Population centres * 4 The city of Bergen op Zoom
Bergen op Zoom
* 5 Transport * 6 Artists in Bergen op Zoom
Bergen op Zoom
* 7 International relations * 7.1 Twin towns — sister cities * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links ETYMOLOGYThe city was built on a place where two types of soil meet: sandy soil and marine clay. The sandy soil pushed against the marine clay, accumulating and forming hills over several centuries. People called those hills the Brabantse Wal, literally meaning "wall of Brabant". Zoom refers to the border of this wall and bergen in Dutch means mountains or hills
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Catholic
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See , is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Battle Of White Mountain
Decisive victory for Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
and his Catholic allies Outcome: * Bohemian Revolt ended * Denmark
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Elizabeth Of Bohemia
ELIZABETH STUART (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was Electress Palatine and briefly Queen of Bohemia as the wife of Frederick V, Elector Palatine . Due to her husband’s reign in Bohemia lasting for just one winter, Elizabeth is often referred to as THE WINTER QUEEN. Elizabeth was the second child and eldest daughter of James VI and I , King of Scots , England , and Ireland , and his wife, Anne of Denmark . With the demise of the Stuart dynasty in 1714, Elizabeth's grandson succeeded to the British throne as George I of Great Britain , initiating the Hanover line of succession. The reigning British monarch, Elizabeth II , is Elizabeth Stuart's direct descendant of the 10th and 11th generation through different paths
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Battle Of Wimpfen
10, 404+ Of which 404 are cavalry. Two 60 pounder guns, One 70 pounder, 20 of a mixture of 3, 5, 6 and 8 pounders and 6 "newly cast' guns and 9 half culverins Approx: 15, 650+ 8,700 infantry, 900 cavalry, seven 12 pounders and 1 half culverin with Tilly. 5,200 infantry, 850 cavalry and five 8 pounders with Spanish
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Alsace
ALSACE (/ælˈsæs, -ˈseɪs, ˈælsæs, -seɪs/ , French: ( listen ); Alsatian : ’s Elsass ; German: Elsass ( listen ); Latin
Latin
: Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France now located in the administrative region of Grand Est . Alsace
Alsace
is located on France's eastern border and on the west bank of the upper Rhine
Rhine
adjacent to Germany
Germany
and Switzerland
Switzerland

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Lower Saxony
LOWER SAXONY (German : Niedersachsen , Low German : Neddersassen) is a German state (Bundesland) situated in northwestern Germany . It is the second largest state by land area, with 47,624 square kilometres (18,388 sq mi), and fourth largest in population (7.9 million) among the sixteen Länder of Germany . In rural areas Northern Low Saxon , a dialect of Low German , and Saterland Frisian , a variety of Frisian , are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining. Lower Saxony borders on (from north and clockwise) the North Sea , the states of Schleswig-Holstein , Hamburg , Mecklenburg-Vorpommern , Brandenburg , Saxony-Anhalt , Thuringia , Hesse and North Rhine- Westphalia , and the Netherlands
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Jindrich Matyas Thurn
COUNT JINDřICH MATYáš THURN-VALSASSINA (German : Heinrich Matthias Graf von Thurn und Valsassina; Italian : Enrico Matteo Conte della Torre di Valsassina ) (24 February 1567 – 26 January 1640), was a Bohemian nobleman , one of leaders of Protestant Bohemian Revolt against Emperor Ferdinand II and in events that led to the Thirty Years War , and in the end a military leader and diplomat in Swedish service, who eventually resided in Swedish Estonia . CONTENTS* 1 Life * 1.1 Leader of the Bohemian Rebellion * 1.2 In exile * 2 References * 3 External links LIFEHe was the son of a member of the geheimrat of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria , Franz Napus von Thurn-Valsassina (František Thurn ), count of Linz (1508–1586) and his second wife countess Barbora of Schlick (1547–1581), daughter of Hieronymus Schlick count of Bassano and Weißkirchen and countess Katharina von Gleichen-Tonna. Both of his parents were Protestants
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