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Christian Democrat Organization Of America
The Christian Democrat Organization of America (ODCA, from Spanish: Organización Demócrata Cristiana de América) is an international organization made up of political parties that advocate the principles of Christian Democracy in their respective countries. Each of the member parties is different, sometimes having differing views of Christian Democracy itself
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Christian Democracy
Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe
Europe
under the influence of Catholic social teaching,[1][2] as well as Neo-Calvinism.[nb 1] Christian democratic political ideology advocates for a commitment to social market principles and qualified interventionism
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Wilhelm Emmanuel Von Ketteler
Freiherr[1] Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler (25 December 1811 – 13 July 1877) was a German theologian and politician who served as Bishop of Mainz. His social teachings became influential during the papacy of Leo XIII and his encyclical Rerum novarum.Contents1 Early life and ordination 2 Scholar and politician 3 Bishop 4 Educator 5 Death and legacy 6 Views6.1 Protestantism 6.2 Church rights 6.3 Papal infallibility 6.4 Kulturkampf 6.5 Battle of Sedan7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksEarly life and ordination[edit] Ketteler was born in Münster in Westphalia. In 1828 he finished the Matura in Brig, Switzerland far away from his home.[citation needed] He studied theology at Göttingen, Berlin, Heidelberg and Munich, and was ordained priest in 1844. He resolved to consecrate his life to maintaining the cause of the freedom of the Church from the control of the State
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Quadragesimo Anno
Quadragesimo anno (Latin for "In the 40th Year") is an encyclical issued by Pope
Pope
Pius XI
Pius XI
on 15 May 1931, 40 years after Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum novarum. Unlike Leo XIII, who addressed the condition of workers, Pius XI
Pius XI
discusses the ethical implications of the social and economic order. He describes the major dangers for human freedom and dignity arising from unrestrained capitalism and totalitarian socialism/communism
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Laborem Exercens
Laborem exercens (Latin: Through Work) is an encyclical written by Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
in 1981, on human work. It is part of the larger body of Catholic social teaching, which traces its origin to Pope
Pope
Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical Rerum novarum.Contents1 Context 2 Dignity of work 3 Labor and capital 4 The indirect employer 5 Rights of workers5.1 Full employment 5.2 Wages and benefits 5.3 Unions 5.4 Dignity of agricultural work 5.5 Rights of disabled persons 5.6 Emigration
Emigration
and work6 Spirituality of work 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksContext[edit] It had become customary for popes to publish new writings on social issues at ten-year intervals since Rerum novarum, in order to keep the teachings relevant to the current times
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Sollicitudo Rei Socialis
Sollicitudo rei socialis (Latin: The social concern) is an encyclical promulgated by Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
on 30 December 1987, on the twentieth anniversary of Populorum progressio. It deals once more with the theme of development along two fundamental lines: 1) the failed development of the Third World and 2) the meaning of, conditions and requirements for a development of a worthy person. The encyclical presents differences between progress and development, and insists that true development cannot be limited to the multiplication of goods and services, but must contribute to the fullness of being a human being. In this way the moral nature of real development is meant to be shown clearly.The teaching and spreading of her social doctrine are part of the Church's evangelizing mission
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Centesimus Annus
Centesimus annus (Latin for "hundredth year") is an encyclical which was written by Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
in 1991 on the hundredth anniversary of Rerum novarum, an encyclical issued by Pope
Pope
Leo XIII in 1891. It is part of a larger body of writings, known as Catholic social teaching, that trace their origin to Rerum novarum
Rerum novarum
and ultimately the New Testament. It was one of fourteen encyclicals issued by John Paul II
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Laudato Si'
Laudato si'
Laudato si'
(Medieval Central Italian
Central Italian
for "Praise be to you") is the second encyclical of Pope
Pope
Francis. The encyclical has the subtitle "On Care For Our Common Home".[1] In it, the Pope
Pope
critiques consumerism and irresponsible development, laments environmental degradation and global warming, and calls all people of the world to take "swift and unified global action".[2] The encyclical, dated 24 May 2015, was officially published at noon on 18 June 2015 accompanied by a news conference.[2] The Vatican released the document in Italian, German, English, Spanish, French, Polish, Portuguese and Arabic alongside the original Latin.[3] The encyclical is the second published by Francis, after Lumen fidei ("Light of Faith") which was released in 2013
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Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (German: [ˈkɔnʁaːt ˈhɛɐ̯man ˈjoːzəf ˈaːdəˌnaʊ̯ɐ] ( listen); 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
(West Germany) from 1949 to 1963
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Giulio Andreotti
Giulio Andreotti
Giulio Andreotti
OMI SMOM OCSG OESSH (Italian: [ˈʤuːljo andreˈɔtti]; 14 January 1919 – 6 May 2013)[2] was an Italian politician and statesman who served as the 41st Prime Minister of Italy
Italy
and leader of the Christian Democracy party; he was the sixth longest-serving Prime Minister since the Italian Unification
Italian Unification
and the second longest-serving post-war Prime Minister, after Silvio Berlusconi. Andreotti is widely considered the most powerful and prominent politician of the so-called First Republic. Beginning as a protégé of Alcide De Gasperi, Andreotti achieved cabinet rank at a young age and occupied all the major offices of state over the course of a forty-year political career, being seen as a reassuring figure by the civil service, business community, and Vatican
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Alcide De Gasperi
Alcide Amedeo Francesco De Gasperi (Italian pronunciation: [alˈtʃiːde de ˈɡasperi]; 3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman who founded the Christian Democracy party.[1] From 1945 to 1953 he was the Prime Minister of Italy, leading eight successive coalition governments. De Gasperi was the last Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy, serving under both King Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
and King Umberto II. His eight-year term in office remains a landmark of political longevity for a leader in modern Italian politics
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Eduardo Frei Montalva
Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (January 16, 1911 – January 22, 1982) was a Chilean political leader. In his long political career, he was Minister of Public Works, president of his Christian Democratic Party, senator, President of the Senate, and the 28th president of Chile
Chile
from 1964 to 1970. His eldest son, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, also became president of Chile
Chile
(1994–2000). Frei's Christian Democratic Party supported the Armed Forces intervention to remove his successor Salvador Allende
Salvador Allende
from office in 1973, after the Chamber of Deputies, on August 22, 1973, accused Allende of violating the Constitution and called for his overthrow
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Keith Joseph
Keith Sinjohn Joseph, Baron Joseph, CH, PC, QC (17 January 1918 – 10 December 1994), known as Sir Keith Joseph, 2nd Baronet, for most of his political life, was a British barrister and politician. A member of the Conservative Party, he served in the Cabinet under four prime ministers: Harold Macmillan, Sir Alec Douglas-Home, Edward Heath
Edward Heath
and Margaret Thatcher
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Helmut Kohl
Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (German: [ˈhɛlmuːt ˈjoːzɛf 'mɪçaʔeːl ˈkoːl]; 3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany
Germany
from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany
West Germany
1982–1990 and of the reunited Germany
Germany
1990–1998) and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998. From 1969 to 1976, Kohl was minister president of the state Rhineland-Palatinate. Kohl chaired the Group of Seven
Group of Seven
in 1985 and 1992. In 1998 he became honorary chairman of the CDU, resigning from the position in 2000. Born in 1930 in Ludwigshafen
Ludwigshafen
to a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
family, Kohl joined the Christian Democratic Union in 1946 at the age of 16
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Rerum Novarum
Rerum novarum
Rerum novarum
(from its incipit, with the direct translation of the Latin meaning "of the new things"[n 1]), or Rights and Duties of Capital and Labor, is an encyclical issued by Pope
Pope
Leo XIII
Leo XIII
on 15 May 1891. It was an open letter, passed to all Catholic
Catholic
Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops and bishops,[5] that addressed the condition of the working classes. It discussed the relationships and mutual duties between labor and capital, as well as government and its citizens
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Abraham Kuyper
Abraham Kuijper (/ˈkaɪpər/; Dutch: [ˈaːbraːɦɑm ˈkœypər]; 29 October 1837 – 8 November 1920), generally known as Abraham Kuyper, was Prime Minister of the Netherlands
Prime Minister of the Netherlands
between 1901 and 1905, an influential neo-Calvinist theologian and also a journalist. He established the Reformed
Reformed
Churches in the Netherlands, which upon its foundation became the second largest Reformed
Reformed
denomination in the country behind the state-supported Dutch Reformed
Reformed
Church. In addition, he founded a newspaper, the Free University of Amsterdam and the Anti-Revolutionary Party
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