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Christian Democrat Organization Of America
The CHRISTIAN DEMOCRAT ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA (ODCA, from Spanish: Organización Demócrata Cristiana de América) is an international organization made up of political parties that advocate the principles of Christian Democracy in their respective countries. Each of the member parties is different, sometimes having differing views of Christian Democracy itself. Some of the member parties are in government in their country, others are in coalition government, and others are not in government. Currently there are 26 member political parties in 21 different countries with a constituency representing 30% of all registered voters in Latin America and 10% of the entire population of the region
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Keith Joseph
KEITH SINJOHN JOSEPH, BARON JOSEPH, CH , PC , QC (17 January 1918 – 10 December 1994), known as SIR KEITH JOSEPH, 2ND BARONET, for most of his political life, was a British barrister and politician . A member of the Conservative Party , he served in the Cabinet under four prime ministers: Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
, Sir Alec Douglas-Home
Alec Douglas-Home
, Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
. He was a key influence in the creation of what came to be known as " Thatcherism " and the subsequent decline of one-nation conservatism and the postwar consensus . Keith Joseph was the first to introduce the concept of the social market economy into Britain, an economic and social system inspired by Christian democracy . He also co-founded the Centre for Policy Studies writing its first publication: Why Britain needs a Social Market Economy
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Neo-Scholasticism
Catholicism portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portal * v * t * e NEO-SCHOLASTICISM (also known as NEO-SCHOLASTIC THOMISM or NEO-THOMISM because of the great influence of the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
on the movement), is a revival and development of medieval scholasticism in Roman Catholic theology
Catholic theology
and philosophy which began in the second half of the 19th century. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Key principles * 3 Late-19th-century spread * 4 Early-20th-century development * 5 Variation and tradition * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links ORIGINSDuring the medieval period, scholasticism became the standard accepted method of philosophy and theology. The Scholastic method declined with the advent of humanism in the 15th and 16th centuries, after which time it came to be viewed by some as rigid and formalistic
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Christian Ethics
CHRISTIAN ETHICS is a branch of Christian theology that defines virtuous behavior and wrong behavior from a Christian perspective. Systematic theological study of Christian ethics is called moral theology . Christian virtues are often divided into four cardinal virtues and three theological virtues . Christian ethics includes questions regarding how the rich should act toward the poor , how women are to be treated , and the morality of war . Christian ethicists, like other ethicists, approach ethics from different frameworks and perspectives. The approach of virtue ethics has also become popular in recent decades, largely due to the work of Alasdair MacIntyre and Stanley Hauerwas
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Alcide De Gasperi
ALCIDE AMEDEO FRANCESCO DE GASPERI (Italian pronunciation: ; 3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman and politician who founded the Christian Democracy party. From 1945 to 1953 he was the prime minister of eight successive coalition governments. His eight-year term in office remains a landmark of political longevity for a leader in modern Italian politics. De Gasperi is the fifth longest-serving Prime Minister since the Italian Unification
Italian Unification
. A Catholic, he was one of the founding fathers of the European Union , along with fellow Italian Altiero Spinelli , the French Robert Schuman , and the West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer

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Pope Leo XIII
POPE LEO XIII (Italian : Leone XIII; born VINCENZO GIOACCHINO RAFFAELE LUIGI PECCI; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903, to an Italian comital family) reigned as Pope
Pope
from 20 February 1878 to his death. He was the oldest pope (reigning until the age of 93), and had the third longest confirmed pontificate , behind that of Pius IX
Pius IX
(his immediate predecessor) and John Paul II . He is the most recent pontiff to date to take the pontifical name of "Leo" upon being elected to the pontificate. He is well known for his intellectualism and his attempts to define the position of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with regard to modern thinking
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Konrad Adenauer
KONRAD HERMANN JOSEPH ADENAUER (German pronunciation: ; 5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first post-war Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
( West Germany
West Germany
) from 1949 to 1963. He led his country from the ruins of World War II to a productive and prosperous nation that forged close relations with France, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States. During his years in power West Germany
West Germany
achieved democracy, stability, international respect and economic prosperity (" Wirtschaftswunder ", German for "economic miracle"). He was the first leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), a Christian Democratic party that under his leadership became one of the most influential parties in the country
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Quadragesimo Anno
QUADRAGESIMO ANNO (Latin for “In the 40th Year”) is an encyclical issued by Pope Pius XI on 15 May 1931, 40 years after Leo XIII 's encyclical Rerum novarum . Unlike Leo XIII, who addressed the condition of workers, Pius XI discusses the ethical implications of the social and economic order. He describes the major dangers for human freedom and dignity arising from unrestrained capitalism and totalitarian socialism/communism. He also calls for the reconstruction of the social order based on the principle of solidarity and subsidiarity . Essential contributors to the formulation of the encyclical Quadragesimo anno were the German Jesuits , Roman Catholic theologians and social philosophers Gustav Gundlach and the Königswinterer Kreis through one of its main authors Oswald von Nell-Breuning
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Thomas Aquinas
Catholicism
Catholicism
portal Philosophy portal * v * t * e SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS OP (/əˈkwaɪnəs/ ; Italian : Tommaso d'Aquino, lit. 'Thomas of Aquino '; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar , Catholic priest , and Doctor of the Church . He was an immensely influential philosopher , theologian , and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism , within which he is also known as the DOCTOR ANGELICUS and the DOCTOR COMMUNIS. The name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio . He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism ; of which he argued that reason is found in God. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law , metaphysics, and political theory
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John Calvin
JOHN CALVIN (/ˈkælvɪn/ ; French : Jean Calvin, pronounced ; born JEHAN CAUVIN: 10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564) was a French theologian , pastor and reformer in Geneva
Geneva
during the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism
Calvinism
, aspects of which include the doctrines of predestination and of the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation , in which doctrines Calvin was influenced by and elaborated upon the Augustinian and other Christian traditions. Various Congregational , Reformed , Reformed Baptists and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world. Calvin was a tireless polemic and apologetic writer who generated much controversy
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Laudato Si'
LAUDATO SI\' (Medieval Central Italian for "Praise be to you") is the second encyclical of Pope Francis . The encyclical has the subtitle "On Care For Our Common Home". In it, the Pope critiques consumerism and irresponsible development , laments environmental degradation and global warming , and calls all people of the world to take "swift and unified global action". The encyclical, dated 24 May 2015, was officially published at noon on 18 June 2015 accompanied by a news conference. The Vatican released the document in Italian, German, English, Spanish, French, Polish, Portuguese and Arabic alongside the original Latin. The encyclical is the second published by Francis, after Lumen fidei ("Light of Faith") which was released in 2013. Since Lumen fidei was largely the work of Francis's predecessor Benedict XVI , Laudato si' is generally viewed as the first encyclical that is entirely the work of Francis
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Centesimus Annus
CENTESIMUS ANNUS (Latin for "hundredth year") is an encyclical which was written by Pope John Paul II in 1991 on the hundredth anniversary of Rerum novarum , an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891. It is part of a larger body of writings, known as Catholic social teaching , that trace their origin to Rerum novarum and ultimately the New Testament . It was one of fourteen encyclicals issued by John Paul II. Cardinal Georges Cottier , Theologian emeritus of the Pontifical Household and Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Domenico e Sisto , the University Church of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum , was influential in drafting the encyclical
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Laborem Exercens
LABOREM EXERCENS ( Latin : Through Work) is an encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in 1981, on human work. It is part of the larger body of Catholic social teaching , which traces its origin to Pope Leo XIII 's 1891 encyclical Rerum novarum . CONTENTS * 1 Context * 2 Dignity of work * 3 Labor and capital * 4 The indirect employer * 5 Rights of workers * 5.1 Full employment * 5.2 Wages and benefits * 5.3 Unions * 5.4 Dignity of agricultural work * 5.5 Rights of disabled persons * 5.6 Emigration and work * 6 Spirituality of work * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links CONTEXTIt had become customary for popes to publish new writings on social issues at ten-year intervals since Rerum novarum, in order to keep the teachings relevant to the current times
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Pope Pius XI
POPE PIUS XI, (Italian : Pio XI) born AMBROGIO DAMIANO ACHILLE RATTI (Italian pronunciation: ; 31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), reigned as Pope
Pope
from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939. He was the first sovereign of Vatican City
Vatican City
from its creation as an independent state on 11 February 1929. He took as his papal motto, "Pax Christi in Regno Christi," translated "The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ." Pius XI issued numerous encyclicals , including Quadragesimo anno on the 40th anniversary of Pope
Pope
Leo XIII 's groundbreaking social encyclical Rerum novarum , highlighting the capitalistic greed of international finance, the dangers of socialism /communism , and social justice issues, and Quas primas , establishing the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism
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Stewardship (theology)
STEWARDSHIP is a theological belief that humans are responsible for the world , and should take care of it. Stewardship is people who believe in one God
God
who created the universe and all that is within it, also believing that they must take care of creation and look after it. Creation includes animals and the environment. Many religions and denominations have various degrees of support for environmental stewardship . It can have political implications, such as in Christian Democracy . Many moderate and progressive Roman Catholics , Orthodox Christians , and Evangelical Protestants see some form of environmentalism as a consequence of stewardship. In Jewish and Christian traditions, stewardship refers to the way time, talents, material possessions, or wealth are used or given for the service of God
God
. Some pagan or secular views include a Gaia philosophy which accepts the Earth as a holy being or goddess
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Aruba
ARUBA (/əˈruːbə/ ə-ROO-bə ; Dutch: ) is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea , located about 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and 29 kilometres (18 mi) north of the coast of Venezuela
Venezuela
. It measures 32 kilometres (20 mi) long from its northwestern to its southeastern end and 10 kilometres (6 mi) across at its widest point. Together with Bonaire
Bonaire
and Curaçao , Aruba
Aruba
forms a group referred to as the ABC islands . Collectively, Aruba
Aruba
and the other Dutch islands in the Caribbean
Caribbean
are often called the Dutch Caribbean
Caribbean

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