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Christiaan Huygens
Christiaan Huygens, FRS (/ˈhaɪɡənz, ˈhɔɪɡənz/[3] HY-guns or HOY-guns; Dutch: [ˈɦœyɣə(n)s] ( listen); Latin: Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution. He is known particularly as a physicist, astronomer, probabilist and horologist. In physics, Huygens made groundbreaking contributions in optics and mechanics, while as an astronomer Huygens is chiefly known for his studies of the rings of Saturn
Saturn
and the discovery of its moon Titan. As an inventor, Huygens improved the design of the telescope with the invention of the Huygenian eyepiece. His most famous invention, however, was the invention of the pendulum clock in 1656, which was a breakthrough in timekeeping and became the most accurate timekeeper for almost 300 years[citation needed]
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Royal Society Of London
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
of London for Improving Natural Knowledge,[1] commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society".[1] It is the oldest national scientific institution in the world.[2] The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences
and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement. The society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders
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Collision
A collision is an event in which two or more bodies exert forces on each other for a relatively short time. Although the most common colloquial use of the word "collision" refers to incidents in which two or more objects collide with great force, the scientific use of the word "collision" implies nothing about the magnitude of the force. Some examples of physical interactions that scientists would consider collisions:An insect touches its antenna to the leaf of a plant. The antenna is said to collide with leaf. A cat walks through the grass. Each contact that its paws make with the ground is a collision
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Astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy
(from Greek: ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets; the phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe
Universe
as a whole.[1] Astronomy
Astronomy
is one of the oldest of the natural sciences
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Mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics
(from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity,[1] structure,[2] space,[1] and change.[3][4][5] It has no generally accepted definition.[6][7] Mathematicians seek out patterns[8][9] and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist
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Physics
Physics
Physics
(from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), translit. physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis "nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural science that studies matter[4] and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force.[5] Physics
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Birefringence
Birefringence
Birefringence
is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.[1] These optically anisotropic materials are said to be birefringent (or birefractive). The birefringence is often quantified as the maximum difference between refractive indices exhibited by the material. Crystals
Crystals
with non-cubic crystal structures are often birefringent, as are plastics under mechanical stress. Birefringence
Birefringence
is responsible for the phenomenon of double refraction whereby a ray of light, when incident upon a birefringent material, is split by polarization into two rays taking slightly different paths. This effect was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669, who observed it[2] in calcite, a crystal having one of the strongest birefringences
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Wave Theory
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport. Waves consist, instead, of oscillations or vibrations of a physical medium or a field, around relatively fixed locations. There are two main types of waves: mechanical and electromagnetic. Mechanical waves propagate through a physical matter, whose substance is being deformed. Restoring forces then reverse the deformation. For example, sound waves propagate via air molecules colliding with their neighbors. When the molecules collide, they also bounce away from each other (a restoring force). This keeps the molecules from continuing to travel in the direction of the wave. Electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic waves
do not require a medium. Instead, they consist of periodic oscillations of electrical and magnetic fields originally generated by charged particles, and can therefore travel through a vacuum
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René Descartes
René Descartes
René Descartes
(/ˈdeɪˌkɑːrt/;[9] French: [ʁəne dekaʁt]; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian";[10] 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy
Western philosophy
is a response to his writings,[11][12] which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–49) of his life in the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
and the Stadtholder
Stadtholder
of the United Provinces
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Statistical Mechanics
Statistical mechanics
Statistical mechanics
is a branch of theoretical physics that uses probability theory to study the average behaviour of a mechanical system whose exact state is uncertain.[1][2][3][note 1] Statistical mechanics
Statistical mechanics
is commonly used to explain the thermodynamic behaviour of large systems. This branch of statistical mechanics, which treats and extends classical thermodynamics, is known as statistical thermodynamics or equilibrium statistical mechanics. Microscopic mechanical laws do not contain concepts such as temperature, heat, or entropy; however, statistical mechanics shows how these concepts arise from the natural uncertainty about the state of a system when that system is prepared in practice
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French Academy Of Sciences
The French Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences
(French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV
Louis XIV
at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research
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Dutch Republic
The Hague
The Hague
(de facto)Languages Dutch, Zeelandic, West Flemish, Dutch Low Saxon, West FrisianReligion Dutch ReformedGovernment Confederative republicStadtholder •  1581–1584 William I (first) •  1751–1795 William V (last)Grand Pensionary •  1581–1585 Paulus Buys
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University Of Angers
The University of Angers (French: Université d'Angers) is an institution of higher education situated in the town of the same name, in western France
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The Hague
The Hague
The Hague
(/ðə ˈheɪɡ/; Dutch: Den Haag, pronounced [dɛn ˈɦaːx] ( listen), short for 's-Gravenhage; [ˈsxraːvə(n)ˌɦaːɣə] ( listen)) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and the capital of the province of South Holland. With a metropolitan population of more than 1 million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and Rotterdam. The Rotterdam– The Hague
The Hague
metropolitan area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country
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Acceleration
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time. An object's acceleration is the net result of any and all forces acting on the object, as described by Newton's Second
Second
Law.[1] The SI unit
SI unit
for acceleration is metre per second squared (m s−2). Accelerations are vector quantities (they have magnitude and direction) and add according to the parallelogram law.[2][3] As a vector, the calculated net force is equal to the product of the object's mass (a scalar quantity) and its acceleration. For example, when a car starts from a standstill (zero relative velocity) and travels in a straight line at increasing speeds, it is accelerating in the direction of travel. If the car turns, an acceleration occurs toward the new direction
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Celestial Mechanics
Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial objects. Historically, celestial mechanics applies principles of physics (classical mechanics) to astronomical objects, such as stars and planets, to produce ephemeris data. As an astronomical field of study, celestial mechanics includes the sub-fields of orbital mechanics (astrodynamics), which deals with the orbit of an artificial satellite, and lunar theory, which deals with the orbit of the Moon.Contents1 History1.1 Johannes Kepler 1.2 Isaac Newton 1.3 Joseph-Louis Lagrange 1.4 Simon Newcomb 1.5 Albert Einstein2 Examples of problems 3 Perturbation theory 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] For early theories of the causes of planetary motion, see Dynamics of the celestial spheres. Modern analytic celestial mechanics started with Isaac Newton's Principia of 1687. The name "celestial mechanics" is more recent than that
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