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Chorea (disease)
Chorea (or choreia, occasionally) is an abnormal involuntary movement disorder, one of a group of neurological disorders called dyskinesias. The term chorea is derived from the Ancient Greek: χορεία ("dance"; see choreia), as the quick movements of the feet or hands are comparable to dancing. The term hemichorea refers to chorea of one side of the body, such as chorea of one arm but not both (analogous to hemiballismus).Contents1 Presentation 2 Causes2.1 Huntington’s disease 2.2 Other genetic causes 2.3 Acquired causes3 Treatment 4 See also 5 Notes 6 External linksPresentation[edit] Chorea is characterized by brief, semi-directed, irregular movements that are not repetitive or rhythmic, but appear to flow from one muscle to the next. These 'dance-like' movements of chorea often occur with athetosis, which adds twisting and writhing movements
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Korea
Korea
Korea
(/kəˈriːə/) is a historical region in East Asia; since 1945, it has been divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Korea
Korea
(officially the "Republic of Korea"). Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea
Korea
is bordered by China
China
to the northwest and Russia
Russia
to the northeast. It is separated from Japan
Japan
to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan
Japan
(East Sea). Korea
Korea
emerged as a singular political entity in 676 AD, after centuries of conflict among the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which were unified as Unified Silla
Unified Silla
to the south and Balhae
Balhae
to the north
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Anti-convulsant
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Anticonvulsants are also increasingly being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder[1] and borderline personality disorder,[2] since many seem to act as mood stabilizers, and for the treatment of neuropathic pain.[3] Anticonvulsants suppress the excessive rapid firing of neurons during seizures.[4] Anticonvulsants also prevent the spread of the seizure within the brain.[5] Conventional antiepileptic drugs may block sodium channels or enhance γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) function
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Cholera
Cholera
Cholera
is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[3][2] Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe.[2] The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days.[1] Vomiting
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Friedreich's Ataxia
Friedreich's ataxia
Friedreich's ataxia
is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system. It manifests in initial symptoms of poor coordination such as gait disturbance; it can also lead to scoliosis, heart disease and diabetes, but does not affect cognitive function. The disease is progressive, and ultimately a wheelchair is required for mobility. Its incidence in the general population is roughly 1 in 50,000. The particular genetic mutation (expansion of an intronic GAA triplet repeat in the FXN gene) leads to reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin
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Mitochondrial Disease
Mitochondrial diseases are a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell. Mitochondria
Mitochondria
are found in every cell of the human body except red blood cells, and convert the energy of food molecules into the ATP that powers most cell functions. Mitochondrial diseases are sometimes (about 15% of the time)[1] caused by mutations in the mitochondrial DNA that affect mitochondrial function. Other mitochondrial diseases are caused by mutations in genes of the nuclear DNA, whose gene products are imported into the mitochondria (mitochondrial proteins) as well as acquired mitochondrial conditions
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Cerebrovascular Disease
Cerebrovascular disease
Cerebrovascular disease
includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation. Arteries
Arteries
supplying oxygen and nutrients to th
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HIV
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV
HIV
infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).[1][2] AIDS
AIDS
is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV
HIV
is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV
HIV
subtype.[3] In most cases, HIV
HIV
is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids
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Cryptococcosis
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by one of two species; Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These were all previously thought to be subspecies of C. neoformans but have now been identified as distinct species. Cryptococcosis
Cryptococcosis
is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction.Contents1 Cause 2 Diagnosis 3 Prevention 4 Treatment4.1 IRIS in those with normal immune function5 Other animals 6 References 7 External linksCause[edit] Cryptococcosis
Cryptococcosis
is a defining opportunistic infection for AIDS, and is the second-most-common AIDS-defining illness in Africa
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PANDAS
Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a hypothesis that there exists a subset of children with rapid onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders and these symptoms are caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections.[1] The proposed link between infection and these disorders is that an initial autoimmune reaction to a GABHS infection produces antibodies that interfere with basal ganglia function, causing symptom exacerbations
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Levodopa
L-DOPA
L-DOPA
(/ˌɛlˈdoʊpə/), also known as levodopa (/ˌlɛvoʊˈdoʊpə/) or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans,as well as some animals and plants. Humans, as well as a portion of the other animals that utilize L-DOPA
L-DOPA
in their biology, make it via biosynthesis from the amino acid L-tyrosine. L-DOPA
L-DOPA
is the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline), which are collectively known as catecholamines. Furthermore, L-DOPA
L-DOPA
itself mediates neurotrophic factor release by the brain and CNS.[1][2] L-DOPA
L-DOPA
can be manufactured and in its pure form is sold as a psychoactive drug with the INN levodopa; trade names include Sinemet, Pharmacopa, Atamet, Stalevo, Madopar, and Prolopa
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Anti-psychotic
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers,[1] are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. They are increasingly being used in the management of non-psychotic disorders. Antipsychotics are usually effective in relieving symptoms of psychosis in the short term. The long-term use of antipsychotics is associated with side effects such as involuntary movement disorders, gynecomastia, and metabolic syndrome. They are also associated with increased mortality in elderly people with dementia. First-generation antipsychotics, known as typical antipsychotics, were discovered in the 1950s
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Neuroferritinopathy
Neuroferritinopathy or adult-onset basal ganglia disease is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of iron in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and motor cortex of the human brain. Symptoms, which are extrapyramidal in nature, progress slowly and generally do not become apparent until adulthood.[1] These symptoms include chorea, dystonia, and cognitive deficits which worsen with age.[2][3] This disorder is autosomal dominant[4] and is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the light chain subunit of the ferritin protein. Wild type ferritin functions as a buffer for iron, sequestering it and controlling its release
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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Systemic lupus erythematosus
(SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.[1] Symptoms vary between people and may be mild to severe.[1] Common symptoms include painful and swollen joints, fever, chest pain, hair loss, mouth ulcers, swollen lymph nodes, feeling tired, and a red rash which is most commonly on the face.[1] Often there are periods of illness, called flares, and periods of remission during which there are few symptoms.[1] The cause of SLE is not clear.[1] It is thought t
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Antiphospholipid Syndrome
Antiphospholipid syndrome
Antiphospholipid syndrome
or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. APS provokes blood clots (thrombosis) in both arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and severe preeclampsia. The diagnostic criteria require one clinical event (i.e. thrombosis or pregnancy complication) and two antibody blood tests spaced at least three months apart that confirm the presence of either lupus anticoagulant or anti-β2-glycoprotein-I (since β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies are a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies, an anti-cardiolipin assay can be performed as a less specific proxy).[2] Antiphospholipid syndrome
Antiphospholipid syndrome
can be primary or secondary. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome occurs in the absence of any other related disease
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Polycythaemia Rubra Vera
Polycythemia
Polycythemia
vera is an uncommon neoplasm in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells.[1] It may also result in the overproduction of white blood cells and platelets. Most of the health concerns associated with polycythemia vera are caused by the blood being thicker as a result of the increased red blood cells. It is more common in the elderly and may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Common signs and symptoms include itching (pruritus), and severe burning pain in the hands or feet that is usually accompanied by a reddish or bluish coloration of the skin
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