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Chordophone
A chordophone is a musical instrument that makes sound by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification. What many would call string instruments are classified as chordophones. Violins, guitars, lyres, and harps are examples. However, the word also embraces instruments that many would hesitate to call string instruments, such as the musical bow and the piano (which, although sometimes called a string instrument, is also called a keyboard instrument and a percussion instrument). Hornbostel-Sachs divides chordophones into two main groups: instruments without a resonator as an integral part of the instrument (which have the classification number 31, also known as simple); and instruments with such a resonator (which have the classification number 32, also known as composite)
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Chord (music)
A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of two or more (usually three or more) notes (also called "pitches") that are heard as if sounding simultaneously.[1][2] (For many practical and theoretical purposes, arpeggios and broken chords, or sequences of chord tones, may also be considered as chords.) Chords and sequences of chords are frequently used in modern West African[3] and Oceanic music,[4] Western classical music, and Western popular music; yet, they are absent from the music of many other parts of the world.[5] In tonal Western classical music (music with a tonic key or "home key"), the most frequently encountered chords are triads, so called because they consist of three distinct notes: the root note, and Intervals of a third and a fifth above the root note
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Resonator
A resonator is a device or system that exhibits resonance or resonant behavior, that is, it naturally oscillates at some frequencies, called its resonant frequencies, with greater amplitude than at others. The oscillations in a resonator can be either electromagnetic or mechanical (including acoustic). Resonators are used to either generate waves of specific frequencies or to select specific frequencies from a signal. Musical instruments use acoustic resonators that produce sound waves of specific tones. Another example is quartz crystals used in electronic devices such as radio transmitters and quartz watches to produce oscillations of very precise frequency. A cavity resonator is one in which waves exist in a hollow space inside the device. In electronics and radio, microwave cavities consisting of hollow metal boxes are used in microwave transmitters, receivers and test equipment to control frequency, in place of the tuned circuits which are used at lower frequencies
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Kafir Harp
The Kafir harp (known in the local language as waj, waji, vaj or vaji) is a traditional four or five stringed arched harp used by the Kafirs in the Nuristan province of Afghanistan. It is played during social gatherings, and to accompany epic storytelling or songs of heroic tales.[1] Similar harps used to be widespread in ancient times throughout Central Asia and India,[2] and this harp possibly entered Afghanistan during the spread of Buddhism across the region[3] but today the waji is not used in any other part of Afghanistan.[4] It has been compared to the ennanga of Uganda and harp designs used in Sumer and Ancient Egypt as far back as 3000 BCE.[5]Contents1 Construction and design 2 Playing technique 3 Cultural importance 4 ReferencesConstruction and design[edit] The Kafir harp is constructed of two main components, the soundbox and the stringholder
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Vielle
BowedByzantine lira Guitar fiddle Fiddle Crwth Rebec ViolPluckedCitoleThe vielle /viˈɛl/ is a European bowed stringed instrument used in the Medieval period, similar to a modern violin but with a somewhat longer and deeper body, three to five gut strings, and a leaf-shaped pegbox with frontal tuning pegs, sometimes with a figure-8 shaped body. The instrument was also known as a fidel or a viuola, although the French name for the instrument, vielle, is generally used. It was one of the most popular instruments of the medieval period, and was used by troubadours and jongleurs from the 13th through the 15th centuries. The vielle possibly derived from the lira, a Byzantine bowed instrument closely related to the rebab, an Arab bowed instrument.[1] There are many medieval illustrations of different types of vielles in manuscripts,[2] sculptures and paintings
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Psalterium (instrument)
A psalterium /sɒlˈtɪəriəm/, or tambourin à cordes, is a stringed musical instrument, the name of which is synonymous with the psaltery. In specific usage, this name denotes a form of long psaltery that is tuned to provide drone chords
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Rebec
The rebec (sometimes rebecha, rebeckha, and other spellings, pronounced /ˈriːbɛk/ or /ˈrɛbɛk/) is a bowed stringed instrument of the Medieval era
Medieval era
and the early Renaissance era. In its most common form, it has a narrow boat-shaped body and 1-5 strings. Played on the arm or under the chin, the technique and tuning may have influenced the development of the violin and the extended technique of bowed banjo.[citation needed]Contents1 Origins 2 Tuning 3 In use 4 Artists 5 The rebec in popular culture 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksOrigins[edit] Popular from the 13th to 16th centuries, the introduction of the rebec into Western Europe coincided with the Arabic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. There is however evidence of the existence of bowed instruments in the 9th century in Eastern Europe
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Psaltery
A psaltery (or sawtry [archaic]) is a stringed instrument of the zither family.Contents1 Ancient harp psaltery 2 Ancient European zither psaltery 3 Medieval psaltery 4 Modern psaltery 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksAncient harp psaltery[edit] The psaltery of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
(epigonion) is a harp-like instrument. The word psaltery derives from the Ancient Greek
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Gittern
The gittern was a relatively small gut strung round-backed instrument that first appears in literature and pictorial representation during the 13th century in Western Europe (Iberian Peninsula, Italy, France, England). It is usually depicted played with a quill plectrum,[1] as we can see clearly beginning in manuscript illuminations from the thirteenth century. [1] It was also called the guitarra in Spain, guiterne or guiterre in France, the chitarra in Italy and quintern in Germany.[2] A popular instrument with court musicians, minstrels, and amateurs, the gittern is considered ancestral to the modern guitar and possibly to other instruments like the mandore and gallichon.[3] From the early 16th century, a vihuela shaped (flat-backed) guitarra began to appear in Spain, and later in France, existing alongside the gittern
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Crwth
The crwth (/ˈkruːθ/ or /ˈkrʊθ/), also called a crowd or rote, is a bowed lyre, a type of stringed instrument, associated particularly with Welsh music and with mediaeval folk music of England, now archaic but once widely played in Europe
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Polyphony
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work. In particular, polyphony consists of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice, monophony, or a texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords, which is called homophony. Within the context of the Western musical tradition, the term polyphony is usually used to refer to music of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Baroque forms such as fugue, which might be called polyphonic, are usually described instead as contrapuntal
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Resonate
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies. Frequencies at which the response amplitude is a relative maximum are known as the system's resonant frequencies or resonance frequencies. At resonant frequencies, small periodic driving forces have the ability to produce large amplitude oscillations, due to the storage of vibrational energy.Contents1 Overview 2 Examples2.1 Tacoma Narrows Bridge 2.2 International Space Station3 Types of resonance3.1 Mechanical and acoustic resonance 3.2 Electrical resonance 3.3 Optical resonance 3.4 Orbital resonance 3.5 Atomic, particle, and molecular resonance4 Theory 5 Resonators 6 Q factor 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksOverview[edit] Resonance occurs when a system is able to store and easily transfer energy between two or more different storage modes (such as kinetic energy an
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Harpsichord
A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard, a row of levers which the player presses. When the player presses one or more keys, a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small quill is triggered. "Harpsichord" designates the whole family of similar plucked-keyboard instruments, including the smaller virginals, muselar, and spinet. The harpsichord was widely used in Renaissance and Baroque music. During the late 18th century, it gradually disappeared from the musical scene, with the rise of the piano
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Koto (instrument)
The koto (Japanese: 箏) is a traditional Japanese stringed musical instrument derived from the Chinese zheng, and similar to the Mongolian yatga, the Korean gayageum, and the Vietnamese đàn tranh. The koto is the national instrument of Japan.[1] Koto are about 180 centimetres (71 in) length, and made from kiri wood (Paulownia tomentosa). They have 13 strings that are usually strung over 13 movable bridges along the width of the instrument. There is also a 17-string koto variant. Players can adjust the string pitches by moving the white bridges before playing
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Elaine Christy
National harp competition,[2][4] (American Harp Society) Ruth Lorraine Close[2][4] (won twice) Distinguished Career Award 1998 from William Penn University Artists International,[5] (as part of Venus Trio)Website elainechristy.comElaine Christy is an award–winning[2] American harpist. She has performed at high-profile concert halls including Steinway Hall,[2] Carnegie's Weill Hall,[2] and with the CBS Orchestra on the television show Late Show with David Letterman.[2] In 2012, she is an instructor of harp at Princeton University.Contents1 Career1.1 Beginnings 1.2 Performances and teaching 1.3 Recordings2 References 3 External linksCareer[edit] Beginnings[edit] Christy attended William Penn University in Oskaloosa, Iowa.[6] During these years, she studied with notable harpists including Margaret Ling, Jane Weidensaul, and Kathleen Bride.[1] She worked as an elementary school teacher while continuing her education and training in Kansas
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Double Bass
The double bass, or simply the bass (and numerous other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra. It is a transposing instrument and is typically notated one octave higher than tuned to avoid excessive ledger lines below the staff. The double bass is the only modern bowed string instrument that is tuned in fourths (like a viol), rather than fifths, with strings usually tuned to E1, A1, D2 and G2. The instrument's exact lineage is still a matter of some debate, with scholars divided on whether the bass is derived from the viol or the violin family. The double bass is a standard member of the orchestra's string section,[1] as well as the concert band, and is featured in concertos, solo and chamber music[2] in Western classical music
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