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Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
(also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.[1] Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρός, chloros ("green") and φύλλον, phyllon ("leaf").[2] Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
is essential in photosynthesis, allowing plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophylls absorb light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as the red portion.[3] Conversely, it is a poor absorber of green and near-green portions of the spectrum, which it reflects, producing the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues
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Methyl Group
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3. In formulas, the group is often abbreviated Me. Such hydrocarbon groups occur in many organic compounds. It is a very stable group in most molecules. While the methyl group is usually part of a larger molecule, it can be found on its own in any of three forms: anion, cation or radical. The anion has eight valence electrons, the radical seven and the cation six. All three forms are highly reactive and rarely observed.[1]Contents1 Methyl cation, anion, and radical1.1 Methyl cation 1.2 Methyl anion 1.3 Methyl radical2 Reactivity2.1 Oxidation 2.2 Methylation 2.3 Deprotonation 2.4 Free radical reactions3 Chiral
Chiral
methyl 4 Etymology 5 See also 6 ReferencesMethyl cation, anion, and radical[edit] Methyl cation[edit] The methylium cation (CH3+) exists in the gas phase, but is otherwise not encountered
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Diffuse Sky Radiation
Diffuse sky radiation
Diffuse sky radiation
is solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface after having been scattered from the direct solar beam by molecules or particulates in the atmosphere. Also called sky radiation, diffuse skylight, or just skylight, it is the reason for the color changes of the sky
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Formyl
An aldehyde /ˈældɪhaɪd/ or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group,[1] which is any generic alkyl or side chain. The group—without R—is the aldehyde group, also known as the formyl group. Aldehydes are common in organic chemistry
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Nanometer
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms
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Stereochemistry
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation. The study of stereochemistry focuses on stereoisomers, which by definition have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space. For this reason, it is also known as 3D chemistry—the prefix "stereo-" means "three-dimensionality".[1] An important branch of stereochemistry is the study of chiral molecules.[2] Stereochemistry
Stereochemistry
spans the entire spectrum of organic, inorganic, biological, physical and especially supramolecular chemistry
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Acetone
Acetone
Acetone
(systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.[12] It is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest and smallest ketone. Acetone
Acetone
is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically for cleaning purposes in laboratories. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A.[13][14] It is a common building block in organic chemistry. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover, and as paint thinner. Acetone
Acetone
is produced and disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine. People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts
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Methanol
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). Methanol
Methanol
acquired the name wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood. Today, industrial methanol is produced in a catalytic process directly from carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Methanol
Methanol
is the simplest alcohol, being only a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group. It is a light, volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor very similar to that of ethanol (drinking alcohol).[11] However, unlike ethanol, methanol is highly toxic and unfit for consumption. At room temperature, it is a polar liquid. It is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethanol
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Pierre Joseph Pelletier
Pierre-Joseph Pelletier (22 March 1788 – 19 July 1842) was a French chemist and pharmacist[1] who did notable research on vegetable alkaloids, and was the co-discoverer with Joseph Bienaimé Caventou
Joseph Bienaimé Caventou
of quinine, caffeine, and strychnine.[2] He was also a collaborator and co-author with Polish chemist Filip Walter. See also[edit]Joseph Bienaimé Caventou Filip Nariusz WalterReferences[edit]^ "Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph". encyclopedia.com. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 20 May 2017.  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pierre-Joseph Pelletier". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Further reading[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pierre Joseph Pelletier.Delepine, Marcel (1951). "Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Caventou". Journal of Chemical Education
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Electron Transport Chain
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane. This creates an electrochemical proton gradient that drives the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that stores energy chemically in the form of highly strained bonds. The molecules of the chain include peptides, enzymes (which are proteins or protein complexes), and others
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Resonance Energy Transfer
Förster resonance energy transfer
Förster resonance energy transfer
(FRET), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), resonance energy transfer (RET) or electronic energy transfer (EET) is a mechanism describing energy transfer between two light-sensitive molecules (chromophores).[1] A donor chromophore, initially in its electronic excited state, may transfer energy to an acceptor chromophore through nonradiative dipole–dipole coupling.[2] The efficiency of this energy transfer is inversely proportional to the sixth power of t
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Electromagnetic Spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies. The electromagnetic spectrum covers electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging from below one hertz to above 1025 hertz, corresponding to wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atomic nucleus. This frequency range is divided into separate bands, and the electromagnetic waves within each frequency band are called by different names; beginning at the low frequency (long wavelength) end of the spectrum these are: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays at the high-frequency (short wavelength) end. The electromagnetic waves in each of these bands have different characteristics, such as how they are produced, how they interact with matter, and their practical applications
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Energy
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.[note 1] Energy
Energy
is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational, electric or magnetic), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related
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Chemiosmosis
Chemiosmosis
Chemiosmosis
is the movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient. An example of this would be the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration or photosynthesis.An ion gradient has potential energy and can be used to power chemical reactions when the ions pass through a channel (red). Hydrogen
Hydrogen
ions, or protons, will diffuse from an area of high proton concentration to an area of lower proton concentration, and an electrochemical concentration gradient of protons across a membrane can be harnessed to make ATP. This process is related to osmosis, the diffusion of water across a membrane, which is why it is called "chemiosmosis". ATP synthase
ATP synthase
is the enzyme that makes ATP by chemiosmosis
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Ancient Greek
The ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BCE), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BCE), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BCE to the 4th century CE). It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
and succeeded by Medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage on its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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NADPH
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent. NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+. NADP+ differs from NAD+ in the presence of an additional phosphate group on the 2' position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety.Contents1 In plants 2 In animals 3 Function 4 Enzymes that use NADP(H) as a coenzyme 5 See also 6 ReferencesIn plants[edit] In photosynthetic organisms, NADPH is produced by ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase in the last step of the electron chain of the light reactions of photosynthesis. It is used as reducing power for the biosynthetic reactions in the Calvin cycle
Calvin cycle
to assimilate carbon dioxide. It is used to help turn the carbon dioxide into glucose
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