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Chios
CHIOS (/ˈkaɪ.ɒs/ ; Greek : Χίος, alternative transliterations Khíos and Híos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands , situated in the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey
Turkey
by the Çeşme Strait. Chios
Chios
is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni
Nea Moni
, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. Administratively, the island forms a separate municipality within the Chios
Chios
regional unit , which is part of the North Aegean region . The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Chios town
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Etesian
The ETESIANS (/ᵻˈtiːʒənz/ or /ᵻˈtiːziənz/ ; Ancient Greek : ἐτησίαι etēsiai "periodic winds"; sometimes found in the Latin form ETESIAE), meltemia (Greek : μελτέμια; pl. of μελτέμι MELTEMI), or MELTEM (Turkish ) are the strong, dry north winds of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
, which blow from about mid-May to mid-September. The Etesian
Etesian
winds are a dominant weather influence in the Aegean Basin. They are at their strongest in the afternoon and often die down at night, but sometimes meltemi winds last for days without a break. Similar winds blow in the Adriatic
Adriatic
and Ionian regions. Meltemi winds are dangerous to sailors because they come up in clear weather without warning and can blow at 7–8 Beaufort . Some yachts and most inter-island ferries cannot sail under such conditions. However, they often provide a good, steady sailing wind favored by leisure sailors
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Precipitation
In meteorology , PRECIPITATION is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity . The main forms of precipitation include drizzle , rain , sleet , snow , graupel and hail . Precipitation
Precipitation
occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates". Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation
Precipitation
forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud
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Piri Reis
AHMED MUHIDDIN PIRI (1465/70–1553 ), better known as PIRI REIS (Turkish : Pîrî Reis or Hacı Ahmed Muhiddin Pîrî Bey
Bey
), was an Ottoman admiral , geographer , and cartographer . He is primarily known today for his maps and charts collected in his Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation), a book that contains detailed information on navigation, as well as very accurate charts (for their time) describing the important ports and cities of the Mediterranean Sea . He gained fame as a cartographer when a small part of his first world map (prepared in 1513) was discovered in 1929 at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul
Istanbul
. His world map is the oldest known Turkish atlas showing the New World
New World
, and one of the oldest maps of America still in existence anywhere (the oldest known map of America that is still in existence is the map drawn by Juan de la Cosa in 1500)
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Mediterranean Climate
A MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE /ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or DRY SUMMER CLIMATE, is the climate typical of areas in the Mediterranean Basin . The Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
is usually characterized by rainy winters and dry, warm to hot summers. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Sea, an area where this climate is commonplace, it is also present in other areas of the planet, although with variations in the distribution of temperatures. In addition to the Mediterranean Basin, the climate is also found in most of California
California
in the United States , in parts of Western and South Australia
South Australia
, in southwestern South Africa
South Africa
, sections of Western and Central Asia
Central Asia
, and in Central Chile
Chile

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Constantine Ix
CONSTANTINE IX MONOMACHOS, Latinized as CONSTANTINE IX MONOMACHUS (Medieval Greek : Κωνσταντῖνος Θ΄ Μονομάχος, translit. Kōnstantinos IX Monomakhos; c. 1000 – 11 January 1055), reigned as Byzantine emperor
Byzantine emperor
from June 11, 1042 to January 11, 1055. He had been chosen by the Empress Zoe as a husband and co-emperor in 1042, although he had been exiled for conspiring against her previous husband, Emperor Michael IV the Paphlagonian
Michael IV the Paphlagonian
. They ruled together until Zoe died in 1050. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Reign * 3 Architecture and art * 4 Family * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 7.1 Primary sources * 7.2 Secondary sources EARLY LIFEConstantine Monomachos was the son of Theodosios Monomachos, an important bureaucrat under Basil II
Basil II
and Constantine VIII
Constantine VIII

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Turkey
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 Republic of Turkey Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish ) Flag ANTHEM: * " İstiklâl Marşı " * "The Independence March" * CAPITAL Ankara
Ankara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917°N 32.833°E / 39.917; 32.833 LARGEST CITY Ista
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World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES (or MEDIEVAL PERIOD) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Genoese Dialect
GENOESE (Zeneize) is a dialect of the Ligurian language spoken in Genoa
Genoa
(the principal city of the Liguria
Liguria
region in Northern Italy
Italy
). Ligurian is listed by Ethnologue as a language in its own right, of the Romance branch, and not to be confused with the ancient Ligurian language . Like the languages of Lombardy
Lombardy
, Piedmont
Piedmont
, and surrounding regions, it is Gallo-Italic . The language is far from dying out. While most remaining speakers of it are elderly, many young people still speak the language. Further, there are several associations dedicated to keeping the language alive, like "O Castello" in Chiavari
Chiavari
and "A Compagna" in Genoa
Genoa

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Acephalous Society
In anthropology , an ACEPHALOUS SOCIETY (from the Greek ἀκέφαλος "headless") is a society which lacks political leaders or hierarchies. Such groups are also known as egalitarian or non-stratified societies. Typically these societies are small-scale, organized into bands or tribes that make decisions through consensus decision making rather than appointing permanent chiefs or kings. Most foraging or hunter-gatherer societies are acephalous. In scientific literature covering native African societies and the effect of European colonialism
European colonialism
on them the term is often used to describe groups of people living in a settlement with "no government in the sense of a group able to exercise effective control over both the people and their territory". In this respect the term is also often used as synonymous to "stateless Society"
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Middle Bronze Age
arsenical bronze writing , literature sword , chariot ↓ Iron Age
Iron Age
The BRONZE AGE is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze , proto-writing , and other early features of urban civilization . The Bronze
Bronze
Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze- Iron
Iron
system , as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze
Bronze
Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin , arsenic , or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere
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Tyrant
A TYRANT (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty. Often described as a cruel character, a tyrant defends his position by oppressive means, tending to control almost everything in the state. The original Greek term, however, merely meant an authoritarian sovereign without reference to character, bearing no pejorative connotation during the Archaic and early Classical periods. However, it was clearly a negative word to Plato , a Greek philosopher, and on account of the decisive influence of philosophy on politics, its negative connotations only increased, continuing into the Hellenistic period . Plato and Aristotle define a tyrant as a person who rules without law, using extreme and cruel methods against both his own people and others
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Greek Archaeological Service
The GREEK ARCHAEOLOGICAL SERVICE (Greek : Αρχαιολογική Υπηρεσία) is a state service, under the auspices of the Greek Ministry of Culture , responsible for the oversight of all archaeological excavations, museums and the country's archaeological heritage in general. It is the oldest such service in Europe, being founded in 1833, immediately after the establishment of the modern Greek state. CONTENTS * 1 See also * 2 References * 3 Sources * 4 External links SEE ALSO * List of museums in Greece REFERENCES * ^ Hamilakis (2007), pp. 36–37, 82 * ^ Patrizio (2009), p. 155SOURCES * Gunning, Lucia Patrizio (2009). The British Consular Service and the Collection of Antiquities in the Aegean. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9780754660231 . * Hamilakis, Yannis (2007). The Nation and Its Ruins - Antiquity, Archaeology
Archaeology
and National Imagination in Greece. Oxford University Press
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Necropolis
A NECROPOLIS is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments. The name stems from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
νεκρόπολις nekropolis, literally meaning "city of the dead". The term usually implies a separate burial site at a distance from a city, as opposed to tombs within cities, which were common in various places and periods of history. They are different from grave fields , which did not have remains above the ground. While the word is most commonly used for ancient sites, the name was revived in the early 19th century and applied to planned city cemeteries, such as the Glasgow Necropolis . HISTORY THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (June 2013) Mastabas in the Giza Necropolis with the Pyramid of Khafre in the background
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