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Chinese Sovereign
Chinese sovereign
Chinese sovereign
is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China. Several titles and naming schemes have been used throughout history.Contents1 Imperial titles1.1 Emperor 1.2 King 1.3 Son of Heaven2 How to read the titles of a Chinese sovereign 3 Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
naming conventions 4 Self-made titles 5 Foreign titles taken by Chinese rulers 6 Common naming conventions 7 See also 8 ReferencesImperial titles[edit] Emperor[edit] Main article: Emperor of China The characters Huang (皇 huáng "august (ruler)") and Di (帝 dì "divine ruler") had been used separately and never consecutively (see Three August Ones and Five Emperors). The character was reserved for mythological rulers until the first emperor of Qin (Qin Shi Huang), who created a new title Huangdi (皇帝 in pinyin: huáng dì) for himself in 221 BCE, which is commonly translated as Emperor in English
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Han Dynasty
Coordinates: 34°09′21″N 108°56′47″E / 34.15583°N 108.94639°E / 34.15583; 108.94639Han dynasty漢朝206 BC–220 ADA map of the Western Han
Western Han
Dynasty in 2 AD: 1) the territory shaded in dark blue represents the principalities and centrally-administered commanderies of the Han Empire; 2) the light blue area shows the extent of the Tarim Basin
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Economic History Of China
The economic history of China
China
is covered in the following articles:Economic history of China
China
before 1912Economy of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC – 220 AD) Economy of the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(960–1279) Economy of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(1368–1644)Economic history of China
China
(1912–49), i.e. of mainland China
China
between 1912 and 1949.Economic history of Taiwan
Taiwan
(1949–present), i.e. of the Republic of China
China
on Taiwan
Taiwan
since 1945.Economic history of China
China
(1949–present), i.e
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Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin (/dʒɪn/),[2] lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China. Its name is sometimes written as Kin, Jurchen Jin or Jinn in English to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn dynasty of China
China
whose name is identical when transcribed without tone marker diacritics in the Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
system for Standard Chinese.[3] It is also sometimes called the "Jurchen dynasty" or the "Jurchen Jin", because its founding Emperor Taizu of Jin (reign 1115–1123) was of Wanyan
Wanyan
Jurchen descent. The Jin emerged from Taizu's rebellion against the Liao dynasty (907–1125), which held sway over northern China
China
until the nascent Jin drove the Liao to the Western Regions, where they became known as the Western Liao
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Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
(/juːˈɑːn/;[4] Chinese: 元朝; pinyin: Yuán Cháo), officially the Great Yuan[5] (Chinese: 大元; pinyin: Dà Yuán; Yehe Yuan Ulus[b]), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin
Borjigin
clan. It followed the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
and was succeeded by the Ming dynasty. Although the Mongols
Mongols
had ruled territories including modern-day North China
China
for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style,[6] and the conquest was not complete until 1279
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Ming Dynasty
The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(/mɪŋ/)[2] was the ruling dynasty of China
China
– then known as the Great Ming Empire
Empire
– for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer, John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history",[3] was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese
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Republic Of China (1912–1949)
The Republic
Republic
of China
China
was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia
Mongolia
and Taiwan. It was founded in 1912, after the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty, was overthrown in the Xinhai Revolution. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, former leader of the Beiyang Army. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song was assassinated shortly after, and the Beiyang Army
Beiyang Army
led by Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
maintained full control of the government in Beijing. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan tried to reinstate the monarchy, before resigning after popular unrest
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History Of The People's Republic Of China
The history of the People's Republic of China
China
details the history of mainland China
China
since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Chinese Communist Party
Chinese Communist Party
(CCP) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
proclaimed the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) from atop Tiananmen
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Chinese Historiography
Chinese historiography
Chinese historiography
is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.Contents1 Overview of Chinese history 2 Key organizing concepts2.1 Dynastic cycle 2.2 Multi-ethnic history 2.3 Marxism 2.4 Modernization 2.5 Hydraulic despotism 2.6 Convergence 2.7 Anti-imperialism 2.8 Republican 2.9 Postmodernism3 Recent trends 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References and further reading 7 External linksOverview of Chinese history[edit] The recording of Chinese history
Chinese history
dates back to the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(c. 1600–1046 BC). Although they are not literature as such, many written examples survive of ceremonial inscriptions, divinations and records of family names, which were carved or painted onto tortoise shell or bones.[1][2] The oldest surviving history texts of China were compiled in the Shujing (Book of Documents, 書經)
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Dynasties In Chinese History
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.Contents1 Background 2 Dynasties of China 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksBackground[edit] As one might incorrectly infer from viewing historical timelines, it is not usually the case that one dynasty transitions abruptly and smoothly into another. Rather, dynasties were often established before the complete overthrow of an existing reign, or continued for a time after they had been defeated. For example, the conventional date 1645 marks the year in which the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
armies overthrew the preceding Ming dynasty, according to the dynastic cycle of China. However, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was established in 1636 (or even 1616, albeit under a different name), while the last Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
pretender was not deposed until 1663
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Linguistic History Of China
The languages of China
China
are the languages that are spoken in China. The predominant language in China, which is divided into seven major language groups ( classified as dialects by the Chinese government for political reasons), is known as Hanyu (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyin: Hànyǔ). and its study is considered a distinct academic discipline in China.[5] Hanyu, or Han language, spans eight primary varieties, that differ from each other morphologically and phonetically to such a degree that they will often be mutually unintelligible, similarly to English and German or Danish. The languages most studied and supported by the state include Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and Zhuang
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History Of Chinese Art
Chinese art
Chinese art
is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists. The Chinese art
Chinese art
in the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan) and that of overseas Chinese can also be considered part of Chinese art
Chinese art
where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage and Chinese culture
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History Of Education In China
The history of education in China began with the birth of the Chinese civilization. Nobles often set up educational establishments for their offspring. Establishment of the imperial examinations (advocated in the Warring States period, originated in Han, founded in Tang) was instrumental in the transition from an aristocratic to a meritocratic government
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Song Dynasty
The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(/sɔːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporary Liao and Western Xia
Western Xia
dynasties in the north and was conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass. The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern
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History Of Science And Technology In China
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy. Among the earliest inventions were the abacus, the "shadow clock," and the first items such as Kongming lanterns.[1] The Four Great Inventions – the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing – were among the most important technological advances, only known to Europe by the end of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
1000 years later
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Legal History Of China
The origin of the current law of the People's Republic of China can be traced back to the period of the early 1930s, during the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic. In 1931 the first supreme court was established. Though the contemporary legal system and laws have no direct links to traditional Chinese law, their impact and influence of historical norms still exist. In the period between 1980 and 1987,important progress was made in replacing the rule of men with the rule of law. Laws
Laws
originally passed in 1979 and earlier were amended and augmented, and law institutes and university law departments that had been closed during the Cultural Revolution were opened to train lawyers and court personnel
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