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Chinese Poetry
Chinese poetry
Chinese poetry
is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language. While this last term comprises Classical Chinese, Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Yue Chinese, and other historical and vernacular forms of the language, its poetry generally falls into one of two primary types, Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
poetry and Modern Chinese poetry. Poetry
Poetry
has consistently been held in extremely high regard in China, often incorporating expressive folk influences filtered through the minds of Chinese literati
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Emperor Gaozong Of Song China
Emperor Gaozong of Song (12 June 1107 – 9 November 1187), personal name Zhao Gou, courtesy name Deji, was the tenth emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the first emperor of the Southern Song dynasty. He was the ninth son of Emperor Huizong and a younger brother of Emperor Qinzong. In 1127, during the wars between the Song dynasty and Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, the Song capital Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng) fell to Jin forces in an event historically known as the Jingkang Incident. Emperors Huizong and Qinzong were taken prisoner by the Jurchens, while Zhao Gou managed to escape to southern China. He reestablished the Song dynasty (as the Southern Song dynasty) in Lin'an (present-day Hangzhou) and was proclaimed emperor
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Transliterated
Transliteration
Transliteration
is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another[1] that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e). For instance, for the Modern Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic", the usual transliteration to Latin script
Latin script
is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia
Russia
in Cyrillic script, "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya". Transliteration
Transliteration
is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously
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Qin Shihuang
Huang-LaoHuangdi Sijing HuainanziEarly figuresGuan Zhong Zichan Deng Xi Li Kui Wu QiFounding figuresShen Buhai Duke Xiao of Qin Shang Yang Shen Dao Zhang Yi Xun Kuang Han Fei Li Si Qin Shi HuangHan figuresJia Yi Liu An Emperor Wen of Han Emperor Wu of Han Chao Cuo Gongsun Hong Zhang Tang Huan Tan Wang Fu Zhuge LiangLater figuresEmperor Wen of Sui Du You Wang Anshi Li Shanchang Zhang Juzheng Xu Guangqiv t e Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
(Chinese: 秦始皇; literally: "First Emperor of Qin",  pronunciation (help·info); 18 February 259 BC – 10 September 210 BC) was the founder of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
(秦朝) and was the first emperor of a unified China. He was born Ying Zheng (嬴政) or Zhao Zheng (趙政), a prince of the state of Qin
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Burning Of Books And Burying Of Scholars
The burning of books and burying of scholars (simplified Chinese: 焚书坑儒; traditional Chinese: 焚書坑儒; pinyin: fénshū kēngrú) refers to the supposed burning of texts in 213 BCE
BCE
and live burial of 460 Confucian scholars in 210 BCE
BCE
by the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
of ancient China. The event caused the loss of many philosophical treatises of the Hundred Schools of Thought. The official philosophy of government ("legalism") survived. Recent scholars doubt the details of the story in the Records of the Grand Historian—the main source —since Sima Qian, the author, wrote a century or so after the events and was an official of the Han dynasty, which could be expected to portray the previous rulers unfavorably
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Song Yu
Song Yu (Chinese: 宋玉; Wade–Giles: Sung Yü; fl. 298–263 BC) was an ancient Chinese writer from the late Warring States period, and is known as the traditional author of a number of poems in the Verses of Chu (Chu ci 楚辭). Among the Verses of Chu poems usually attributed to Song Yu are those in the Jiu Bian section
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Han Dynasty
Coordinates: 34°09′21″N 108°56′47″E / 34.15583°N 108.94639°E / 34.15583; 108.94639Han dynasty漢朝206 BC–220 ADA map of the Western Han
Western Han
Dynasty in 2 AD: 1) the territory shaded in dark blue represents the principalities and centrally-administered commanderies of the Han Empire; 2) the light blue area shows the extent of the Tarim Basin
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Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Greece
was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era.[1] Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse
Late Bronze Age collapse
of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC
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Pre-Socratic Philosophy
Pre-Socratic philosophy
Pre-Socratic philosophy
is ancient Greek philosophy before Socrates and schools contemporary to Socrates
Socrates
that were not influenced by him.[1] In Classical antiquity, the Presocratic philosophers were called physiologoi (Greek: φυσιολόγοι; in English, physical or natural philosophers).[2] Aristotle
Aristotle
was the first to make a clear distinction between these physiologoi or physikoi ("physicists", after physis, "nature") who sought natural explanations for phenomena, and the earlier theologoi (theologians), or mythologoi (story tellers and bards) who attributed these phenomena to various gods.[3][4] Diogenes Laërtius divides the physiologoi into two groups: Ionian, led by Anaximander, and the Italiote, led by Pythagoras.[5] Hermann Diels popularized the term "pre-Socratic" in Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (The Fragments of the Pre-Socratics) in 1903
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I Ching
The I Ching
I Ching
(/ˈiː ˈdʒɪŋ/),[2] also known as Classic of Changes or Book
Book
of Changes, is an ancient Chinese divination text and the oldest of the Chinese classics. Possessing a history of more than two and a half millennia of commentary and interpretation, the I Ching
I Ching
is an influential text read throughout the world, providing inspiration to the worlds of religion, psychoanalysis, business, literature, and art
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Rhyme
A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs.[1] The word rhyme is also a pars pro toto ("a part (taken) for the whole") that means a short poem, such as a rhyming couplet or other brief rhyming poem such as nursery rhymes.Contents1 Function of rhyming words 2 Types of rhyme2.1 Perfect rhymes 2.2 General rhymes 2.3 Identical rhymes 2.4 Eye rhyme 2.5 Mind rhyme 2.6 Classification by position3 History3.1 Etymology4 Rhyme in various languages4.1 Celtic languages 4.2 Chinese 4.3 English 4.4 French 4.5 Greek 4.6 Hebrew 4.7 Latin 4.8 Portuguese 4.9 Russian 4.10 Polish 4.11 Arabic 4.12 Sanskrit 4.13 Tamil 4.14 Vietnamese5 See also 6 Notes 7 External linksFunction of rhyming words[edit] Rhyme partly seems to be enjoyed simply as a repeating pattern that is pleasant to hear. It also serves as a powerful mnemonic device, facilitating memorization
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Free Verse
Free verse is an open form of poetry. It does not use consistent meter patterns, rhyme, or any other musical pattern.[1]Contents1 Preface 2 Antecedents 3 Form and structure 4 References 5 See also 6 Further reading 7 External linksPreface[edit] Poets have explained that free verse is not totally free; 'its only freedom is from the tyrant demands of the metered line'.[2] Free verse displays some elements of form. Most free verse self-evidently continues to observe a convention of the poetic line in some sense, at least in written representations, though retaining a potential degree of linkage. Donald Hall
Donald Hall
goes as far as to say that "the form of free verse is as binding and as liberating as the form of a rondeau",[3] and T. S. Eliot
T. S

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Prose Poetry
Prose poetry is poetry written in prose instead of using verse but preserving poetic qualities such as heightened imagery, parataxis and emotional effects.Contents1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Contemporary writers 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksCharacteristics[edit] "The simplest definition is that a prose poem is a poem written in prose....But, not unlike "free verse," the oxymoronic name captures the complex nature of a beast bred to challenge conventional assumptions about what poetry is and what it can do."[1] 'The prose poem is a composition printed out as prose that names itself as poetry, availing itself of the elements of prose, while foregrounding the devices of poetry.'[2] Technically a prose poem appears as prose, reads as poetry, yet lacks line breaks associated with poetry but uses the latter's fragmentation, compression, repetition and rhyme.[3] and in common with poetry symbols, metaphor, and figures of speech.[4] Prose poetry shou
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Six Dynasties
Six Dynasties
Six Dynasties
(Chinese: 六朝; Pinyin: Liù Cháo; 220 or 222–589[1]) is a collective term for six Chinese dynasties in China during the periods of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
(220–280 AD), Jin dynasty (265–420), and Southern and Northern Dynasties
Southern and Northern Dynasties
(420–589)
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Chu (state)
Chu (Chinese: 楚, Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ[2]) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state. From King Wu of Chu
King Wu of Chu
in the early 8th century BCE, the rulers of Chu declared themselves kings on an equal footing with the Zhou kings. Though initially inconsequential, removed to the south of the Zhou heartland and practising differing customs, Chu began a series of administrative reforms, becoming a successful expansionist state during the Spring and Autumn period. With its continued expansion Chu became a great Warring States period
Warring States period
power. Also known as Jing (荆), Jingchu (荆楚) and Shu (舒), Chu included most of the present-day provinces of Hubei
Hubei
and Hunan, along with parts of Chongqing, Guizhou, Henan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Shanghai
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Cao Pi
Cao Pi
Cao Pi
(187[2] – 29 June 226[3]),[4] courtesy name Zihuan, was the first emperor of the state of Cao Wei
Cao Wei
in the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period of China. He was the second son of Cao Cao, a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty, but the eldest son among all the children born to Cao Cao
Cao Cao
by his concubine (later wife), Lady Bian. According to some historical records, he was often in the presence of court officials in order to gain their support.[citation needed] He was mostly in charge of defence[clarification needed] at the start of his career
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